Skip to main content

Full text of "Guide to the exhibition of Chinese and Japanese paintings in the Print and Drawing gallery"

See other formats


British Museum. Dept 
Prints and Drawings 

Guide to the exhibition 




IJLJ 



1036 
B75 



BRITISH MUSEUM, 



GUIDE 



TO 



THE EXHIBITION 



OF 



CHINESE AND JAPANESE PAINTINGS 



PRINT AND DRAWING GALLERY. 



PRINTED BY ORDER OF THE TRUSTEES. 

1888. 

MMMtaMMMBM 

Price Tii"'- 



i 



BRITISH MUSEUM. 



GUIDE 



TO 



THE EXHIBITION 



OF 



CHINESE AND JAPANESE PAINTINGS 



IX THE 



PKINT AND DKAWING GALLEBY. 



FEINTED BY OEDEE OF TEE TRUSTEES. 

1888. 



P It ICE TWOPENCE. 




ND 

1036 
B-75 



LONDON: 
PRINTED BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, LIMITED, 

STAMFORD STREET AND CHARIKG CROSS. 




WILLIAM WHITE, BARRISTER. 



WHITE WING, BRITISH MUSEUM. 

THE building containing the galleries in which are exhibited 
the Museum Glass and Ceramic collections, and, at present, 
Chinese and Japanese Drawings selected from the series pur- 
chased from Mr. William Anderson, has been erected from funds 
bequeathed by Mr. William White, who died on the 13th 
of May, 1823. By his will, dated the 10th of December, 
1822, he directed that, on the death of his wife and child, 
his landed property, consisting of an estate named Hildern and 
Holms, near Botley, in Hampshire, and houses in Cowes, Isle 
of Wight, and, after payment of legacies, his personal estate, 
on the death of his wife, should revert to the Trustees of the 
British Museum. The claim of the Trustees to the landed 
property was disputed, and by a decree in the Vice-Chan- 
cellor's court, July 1826, disallowed, the devise to the Museum 
being pronounced to be invalid as within the provisions of 
the statute of mortmain. Upon the death of the widow in 
the year 1879, the Trustees became entitled under the will to 
a sum of 63,941 in various Government stocks, realizing 
with dividends the amount of 71,780, reduced however 
to 65,411 by payment of legacy duty exacted by the 
Treasury. 

The strong interest in the Museum shown by this disposal of 
his property by Mr. White, was probably in a great measure 
excited by his having been brought up in its near neigh- 
bourhood ; his father having lived in Soho Square, and 
he himself in Store Street and in Tavistock Square. The 
Museum collections as he knew them were closely packed in 
Montagu House, their original repository ; the only addition 
to which, at the date of the will, were rooms on the west side 
built for reception of the Elgin and the Townley marbles. 
The Library was increasing, and had received large acces- 
sions by bequests from the Rev. C. M. Cracherode and Sir 
Joseph Banks, as well as from other donations. It was 



WHITE WING. 



also already known that the splendid library formed by 
George the Third was to be made over to the nation, and 
the difficulty of housing it must have been under discussion. 
Undoubtedly the straitened condition of the Museum col- 
lections, no less than the importance of the institution 
itself, was in Mr. White's mind when he decided on his 
bequest ; and this shows itself in the terms of the will 
directing its application. He does not make it an imperative 
condition that the money should be expended on an enlarge- 
ment of the building, but he suggests it very decidedly. His 
words are : " The money and property so bequeathed to the 
British Museum I wish to be employed in building or im- 
proving upon the said institution, and that round the frieze of 
some part of such building, or, if this money is otherwise 
employed, then over or upon that which so employed it, the 
words Gulielmus White, Arm. Britt. dicavit 18 , be carved, 
or words to that import " adding, apologetically, in reference 
to the ostentation betrayed in this instruction, " It is a little 
vanity of no harm, and may tempt others to follow my example 
in thinking more of the nation and less of themselves." 

What appears to have been his wish has happily been 
carried out by the application of the bequest exclusively to 
building purposes. In respect to the patriotic sentiment in 
the latter part of the quotation from the will, the reflection may 
arise that Mr. White may have been sacrificing the interests 
of his son to a generous consideration for his country. A 
further extract, containing the clause of the bequest, shows 
how he deliberately regarded his son's interest : "If my widow 
shall marry again, or after her decease, my executors shall 
immediately then transfer and pay over the residue of my 
property . . . unto the governors for the time being of 
that national institution, the British Museum. . . . For 
from the nation my property came, and when I leave my son 
enough to be a farmer, he has that which may make him as 
happy and respectable as he can be in any station, and it is 
my charge that he be so brought up." He in fact left his 
landed property for this purpose ; but the son died in his 
infancy. 

Mrs. White outlived her husband for a period of fifty- six 



WHITE WING. 3 

years, and it was not till the year 1879 that the Trustees 
of the Museum took the benefit of the bequest. It came to 
them very opportunely, for at that time Government was 
spending large sums on a new building for the Natural History 
departments, and was altogether inaccessible to appeals for similar 
outlay at Bloomsbury, where, notwithstanding the great gain 
of space obtained by the separation of these collections, there 
was still urgent need of further accommodation for some of the 
departments. The Greek and Roman sculptures wanted space 
for proper arrangement ; relief was urgently demanded for the 
crowded state of the Reading Room ; the department of Manu- 
scripts was destitute of a suitable room for readers consulting 
the select MSS. used only under special supervision ; and the 
department of Prints and Drawings had been waiting many 
years for space adapted to the growth of the collections and 
for their exhibition. All these wants were very pressing, 
and they were met more or less satisfactorily by the help of 
Mr. White's bequest. A gallery was built in connection with 
the department of Greek and Roman antiquities for the better 
display of the remains of the Mausoleum of Halicarnassos ; and 
an extensive building was erected on the south-eastern side 
of the Museum, with front to Montagu Street, and with 
wings on each side connecting it with the main building. 
Within this new structure a Reading Room for newspapers 
has been opened, and space found for storage of the London 
journals and parliamentary papers. Working rooms have 
been provided for the department of Manuscripts, and addi- 
tional space for its collections. The Ceramic and Glass col- 
lections have gained a well- lighted gallery ; and the entire 
department of Prints and Drawings has obtained convenient 
accommodation, with a large gallery for the exhibition of its 
treasures. 

Of the personal history of Mr. White there is little to be 
said, for he was cut off very early in life. His family was 
connected with Haseley Court and Newington in Oxfordshire. 
His father was John White, son of George, for some years 
Clerk to the Committees of Privileges and Elections of the 
House of Commons ; and his mother was Catharine Leigh, 
of the Isle of Wight. He was born in the year 1800 ; and, 



4 WHITE WING. 

having entered the University of Oxford as a Commoner of 
Brasenose College, took his degree in 1820, and was sub- 
sequently called to the Bar. He married Caroline Avis Bull, 
daughter of John Bull, Esq., Surgeon, of Oxford, and had 
one son, who died in infancy. Mr. White died in the year 
1823. The portrait prefixed to this notice is copied from a 
miniature in the possession of his brother-in-law, the Kev. 
Henry Bull, Honorary Canon of Christchurch, Oxford, and 
Rector of Lathbury, in Buckinghamshire. This gentleman, now 
in his ninety-first year, and probably the only person who 
retains a personal recollection of Mr. White, describes him as 
having been highly intelligent, with scientific tastes, and fond 
of art, 

EDWARD A. BOND. 

Fslruary, 1888. 



PEEFACE 



THE present Exhibition consists of a selection from the extensive 
collection of Japanese and Chinese paintings purchased for the 
Museum in 1881 from Mr. William Anderson, F.E.C.S., formerly 
medical officer to Her Majesty's Legation, Japan. That collection 
has been fully described in the official catalogue prepared by 
Mr. Anderson, and published by order of the Trustees in 1886. 
The subject has been further treated by the same author in his 
illustrated work, The Pictorial Arts of Japan, published in the 
same year. To these books, as well as to the work of M. Gonse, 
L 'Art Japonais, the student is referred for more detailed informa- 
tion than the limits of the present guide admit concerning the 
history of the several schools and masters represented, and the 
nature and meaning of the subjects which they depict. 

Great as has been the interest and admiration long felt in Europe 
and America for the minor and industrial arts of the Japanese, 
the history and productions of their regular schools of painting 
had attracted comparatively little attention previously to the 
researches made by Mr. Anderson during his residence in the 
country. Other inquirers have since taken up the study, and 
other collections have been formed, notably that of Professor 
Fenollosa in America, and those of M. Bing and M. Gonse in 
Paris, and of Messrs. Dillon, Phene Spiers and Ernest Hart in 
England. Hence, and by the help of the detailed biographical 
and critical treatises in the native literature, and of the tra- 
ditions preserved by native experts, it has become possible to 
establish trustworthy principles and tests for the historical and 
technical classification of the class of works in question. At the 
same time the practice, which has prevailed for centuries, of 



4 Exhibition of Chinese and Japanese Paintings. 

copying and repeating the original works of distinguished masters, 
and the frequent addition to pictures of false seals and signatures, 
render much caution necessary in individual cases of attribution, 
especially among the works of the oldest schools and painters. In 
the preparation of his volumes above quoted, Mr. Anderson used 
every available means of investigation, and has accepted no attri- 
bution that has not the authority of the most accredited native 
experts. The present guide is in the main simply a compilation 
and abridgment from his work, with a few additions and correc- 
tions derived partly from the author himself and partly from other 
sources. To Mr. Henry Seebohm and Mr. James Britten I am 
particularly indebted for help in identifying the birds and the 
plants respectively which are .figured in the drawings of natural 
history. 

In studying the pictorial art of the Japanese, with that of the 
early Chinese masters from which it was derived, it is essential 
to bear in mind the character of their artistic ideals and traditions, 
which in some respects differ radically from our own. To repro- 
duce on the painted surface, in the Western manner, all the parts 
of any given scene of nature, in the actual truth of their appear- 
and relations, is not the task they have proposed to themselves ; and 
of the scientific aids requisite to such an attempt they have accord- 
ingly remained contentedly ignorant, of linear perspective almost 
entirely (while handling aerial perspective with great, though 
generally quite arbitrary, skill), of the anatomical structure of 
men and animals hardly less. They do not try to express relief 
and solidity by means of natural light and shade, and they indi- 
cate the phenomena of day and night, not by difference of illumi- 
nation, but merely by the introduction of a conventional red disk 
for the sun, and a white disk or crescent for the moon. Their 
art is thus essentially one of decoration, convention, and suggestion. 
Beauty and vivacity of decorative effect : in regard to touch and 
handling, the utmost attainable degree at once of decision and 
sensitiveness: and in regard to nature, a system of extreme 
simplification and abstraction, combined with the most expressive 
and direct rendering of the vital facts of form, movement and 
character, in the elements selected : these, speaking generally, are 
the .qualities at which they aim, and which they often achieve 
especially in designs taken from the life of animals and plants with 
a perfection to which the art of the West hardly affords a parallel. 



Preface. 



Chinese and Japanese paintings are executed generally on silk, 
sometimes on paper. The, material employed is exclusively water- 
colour, sometimes pure and sometimes opaque, and the tools 
brushes of various sorts and sizes. 

The technical terms used in the following pages are these : 

Kakemono = hanging picture, which when complete is always 
fitted with a border of coloured silks, arranged according to 
certain prescribed schemes, and with a roller at the lower end 
by which it is rolled up when not suspended for exhibition. 
The silk border is regarded as forming decoratively an 
essential part of every picture. As it wears out it is from 
time to time renewed, so that comparatively few works of the 
very early masters are found retaining their original borders. 

MaJcimono roil, that is a picture painted, so to speak, panorami- 
cally, along a number of continuous strips of paper or silk 
fastened together. Such rolls are often many yards in length, 
and seldom more than twelve or fifteen inches in depth. 
They are furnished with a roller at one end, and only un- 
rolled when required for inspection. 

GaJcu = a, picture stretched and framed in a wooden (generally 
lacquered) frame. 

The following are the authorities referred to : 

A., Cat.== Anderson, William, Descriptive and Historical Catalogue 
of a Collection of Japanese and Chinese Paintings in tlie British 
Museum. Printed by order of the Trustees. London (Long- 
mans, Quaritch, Triibner), 1886. 

A., P. A. J. = Anderson, William, The Pictorial Arts of Japan. 
London : Sampson Low, 1886. 

The Exhibition is arranged in two series. The first series, com- 
prising nos. 1-133, and consisting mainly of kakemonos, besides a 
few makimonos, gakus, and screen pictures, is shown (with the 
exception of the two screen pictures, 61* and 69) in the cases 
round the walls of the room. The second series, comprising nos. 
134-173, and consisting of drawings either unmounted or newly 
mounted in the European manner (but on Japanese paper) is 
placed in the cases standing on the floor. 

SIDNEY COLVIN. 



PLAN OF GALLERY. 



J 



if 



Entrance from 
Ceramic 



1st Series, nos. 34-49. w 

- fK 2nd Series, nos. 134-138. 

2nd Series, nos. 139-144. ft - 

- K 2nd Series, nos. 145-150. 



2nd Series, nos. 151-157. 




; 2nd Series, nos. 158-168. 



2nd Series, nos. 169-177. ft *- 

- K 2nd Series, nos. 178-188. 

2nd Series, nos. 189-197. ft > 

- X 2nd Series, nos. 198-201. 

2nd Series, nos. 202-204. ft >- 

H 2nd Series, nos. 205-213. 

2nd Series, nos. 214-222. ft >- 

- ^( 2nd Series, nos. 223-232. 

2nd Series, nos. 233-242. ft ^ 

-< K 2nd Series, nos. 243-264. 

2nd Series, nos. 265-273. ft ^ 

H K 1st Series, nos. 113-131. 



I 



Chinese Paintings. 



FIEST SERIES. 



The numbers of this series follow along the walls from left to right, 
beginning at the entrance from the Ceramic Gallery (see plan). 



CHINESE PAINTINGS (nos. 1-10). 

The pictorial arts of Japan being essentially derivative from 
those of China, the first place in the Exhibition has been given to 
specimens of early Chinese painting of the Sung, Yuen,, and 
Ming dynasties (10th-16th centuries). Such works are not only 
excessively rare in themselves, but have at all times been valued 
above all others by the artists and connoisseurs of Japan. 

The paintings of the early Chinese school are as to subject of 
two main kinds, sacred and secular. The sacred or Buddhistic 
division includes (a) representations of the subordinate personages 
of the Buddhist religion saints and supernatural beings freely 
exhibited, singly or in groups, in the ordinary guise of humanity, 
with natural surroundings and attributes : and (6) elaborate con- 
ventional or hieratic compositions illustrating the mysteries of the 
faith according to prescribed schemes, in which the whole arrange- 
ment and every detail are charged with symbolic and ritual 
meaning. The secular division includes portraits of famous per- 
sonages, and representations of landscape and natural history. 
The latter class of subjects are often treated in monochrome, often 
slightly touched with colour, and sometimes fully coloured, but in 
every case freely and rapidly sketched in a liquid medium and with 
a full brush, the subject chosen being simplified by the selection 
of its most vital and striking elements and the exclusion of all 
embarrassing details. The elements so selected are expressed, in 
the works of the early Chinese masters, in a manner in which 
dignity of style is singularly combined with rapidity and sweep of 
hand : it having been above all things required of the painter that 
his work should exhibit the same freedom and certainty of touch 
as was displayed by the masters of calligraphic handwriting, an 
art which among these races both demanded far more skill, and 
earned far higher rewards and reputation, than in the West. 

The early history of Chinese pictorial art is very obscure. 
Native authors allude to it as one of ' the six branches of calli- 



8 Exhibition of Chinese and Japanese Paintings. 

graphy ' that which teaches l the forms of matter ' and thus 
refer its origin to the legendary era ; but no satisfactory record of 
the name and achievements of any individual painter appears 
before the third century A.D., nearly two hundred years after the 
importation from India of the Buddhistic pictures and images. 
It was this importation which probably gave the start in China to 
a new and more ambitious phase of a previously undeveloped art. 

The first painter whose name has been found in history was 
TSAO FUH-HING, who served under the Emperor Sun Kuan in the 
third century A.D. He was noted for the delineation of figures 
and dragons, and is said to have executed Buddhist pictures for 
the temples which were then becoming rapidly multiplied. 

The next artist, concerning whom any precise information is 
attainable, was CHANG SANGYIU, who lived about the middle of 
the sixth century, and was engaged by the devout monarch, 
Wu Ti, as a painter of Buddhist pictures. It is uncertain 
whether any of his works are now in existence, but his name 
is frequently referred to as that of a master whose style was 
imitated by many later celebrities. 

The principal artists of the seventh century were YEN LITEH ; 
his younger brother, YEN LIPUN, who is chiefly remembered by 
a series of portrait studies of historical paragons of learning and 
loyalty; and CHANG YUEH, who lived a little later than these, 
and though greatly esteemed as a painter, is better known as the 
Minister of State to the Emperor HUAN TSUNG. He died A.D. 730, 
at the age of sixty- three. 

Several famous painters left their mark on the history of the 
eighth century. The greatest of these was Wu TAO-TSZ', who 
was engaged as a court artist by the Emperor MING HWANG. 
It was only after a long struggle against poverty, and a failure to 
succeed as a calligraphist, that he turned his attention to painting. 
In style, he followed the masterpieces of CHANG SANGYIU, with 
whom he was declared to be identified by metempsychosis. He 
became especially famous as a designer of Buddhist pictures, and 
his portraitures of Kwanyin and certain other divinities are still 
regarded as the models for priestly artists ; his landscapes were of 
extraordinary vigour, and full of picturesque beauty; and his 
delineations of animals are said to have been life-like to an illusive 
degree. 

His works are now chiefly known by copies, some of which are 
marked by a force and unconventionality rarely seen in the 
paintings of later artists ; but the specimens are insufficient to 
allow a fair judgment of his capabilities. An original altar-piece, 
representing the Nirvana of Sakyarnuni, is preserved at the temple 
of Manjuji, in Kioto, and by dignity of composition, and the extra- 
ordinary truth of expression and action marking the figures of the 
weeping divinities and disciples, manifests a genius possessed by 
few of the Buddhistic artists of later centuries, who have indeed 
been content to copy the design of this great master of the Tang 



Chinese Paintings. 



dynasty with, a fidelity that speaks volumes as to their estimation 
of the original. 

The names of famous Chinese artists of the Sung dynasty (A.D. 
$ 6 0-1 20 6) have reached us in numbers too considerable to be 
quoted : but works by or attributed to several of the chief among 
them, as HWEI TSUNG, MA YUEN, MUH Ki, Mi Fun, and NGAN Hwui, 
will be found in the first section of the Exhibition. Still more 
numerous are the lists of painters belonging to the succeeding Yuen 
and Ming dynasties. 

During the first half of the period covered by the latter dynasty 
the art retained much of its earlier style and excellence ; but during 
the second half (about 1450-1628) a decadence set in, partly owing 
to the spread of a facile and mannered way of work which had 
its origin in Southern China, and gradually infected the more 
virile style of the North. That decadence has never since been 
arrested ; and during the last three-and-a-half centuries the 
Japanese schools of painting have been far more distinguished for 
energy and fertility, power of invention and skill of hand, than 
the school of China, from whose example, in earlier ages, they had 
once and again drawn all the best of their inspiration. 

1. White Eagle on Perch. 

Attributed to the Emperor HWEI TSUNG: Sung dynasty, 

reigned A.D. 1101-1126. 

Kakemono on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 495, no. 2). 
This Emperor was famous for drawings of falcons. 

2. Wild Geese in the Rushes. 

Painted by Hwui Su : Sung dynasty, twelfth century. 
Kakemono on silk, in monochrome (A., Cat. p. 495, no. 3). 
The bird represented is the Chinese goose (Anser cygnoides). 

3. Eagle on Oak-bough. 

Attributed to MUH Ki : Sung dynasty, twelfth century. 
Kakemono on silk, in monochrome (A., Cat. p. 497, no. 9). 

The bird represented is the Crested Hawk-Eagle (Spiraetus 
nipaulensis). 

4. Cock and Chicken, with a Peony. 

Painted by WANG TS'UEN : Sung dynasty, twelfth century. 

Kakemono on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 495, no. 4). 

5. Three Rishis in the Wilderness. 

Painted by NGAN Hwui : Sung and Yuen dynasties, thirteenth 

century. 

Kakemono on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 496, no. 6). 

The Rishis (Ch. Sien Nung ; Jap. Sennin) are creations of, 
philosophy and superstition, who play a great part in the 



10 Exhibition of Chinese and Japanese Paintings. 

mythology, compounded of Taoist and Buddhist elements, 
of China and Japan. They are variously classified, but the 
grouping which accords best with references in Sinico- 
Japanese literature is that given by Eitel in his ' Handbook 
of Chinese Buddhism ' : 1. Deva Rishis, who are believed 
to reside in the Seven Circular Rocks which surround 
Mount Meru. 2. Spirit Rishis, who roam about in the air. 
3. Human Rishis, or recluses who have obtained the 
charm of immortality. 4. Earth Rishis, who live in sub- 
terranean caves. 5. Preta Rishis, who either roam about 
unseen, or live on islands, in deserts, or in caverns. Of 
these five classes the third is the most familiar to students 
of Chinese and Japanese religious and legendary art. 
Among the many figures of this class whose portraitures 
occur in paintings and books, most can be recognised by 
their attributes, and the stories concerning them are stories 
(generally very vague) of mortals who by solitude, discipline, 
and the use of elixirs, have acquired supernatural powers 
and exemption from death. The three personages here 
shown, seated round a bronze vessel placed 011 a rock, are 
respectively identified as CHUNGLI KUAN (Jap. SHORIKEN), 
Lii TUNG PIN (Jap. RIOTOHIN), and Li T'IEH K'WAI (Jap. Ri 
TEKKAI). The pine and wild plum in the landscape are 
emblems of longevity. 

6. A Crane Settling (Grus viridirostris). 

Painted by Mi FUH : Sung dynasty, 1051-1107. 

Kakemono on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 498, no. 15 ; where, however, the 
painter is wrongly named. The signature is that of Mi Fun, otherwise 
known as Mi YUEN CHANG : see A., Cat. p. 487). 

One of a pair : the companion piece, also representing a crane 
of the same species (the sacred or Manchurian crane) is not 
exhibited. 

7. A Sage and his Attendant in the Wilderness. 

Painted by CHEN CHUNG-FUH: Ming dynasty, fifteenth 

century. 
Kakemono on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 497, no. 13). 

The personages represented are not identified. The picture is 
accompanied by a eulogium of the painter, who is said to 
have drawn the portrait of the Emperor. 

8. Wild Geese in the Rushes (Anser segetmi). 

Painted by LIN LIANG : Ming dynasty, sixteenth century. 

Kakemono on silk, in monochrome (A., Cat. p. 499, no. 27). 

One of a pair : the companion piece, also representing geese 
and water-plants, is not exhibited. 



Chinese Paintings. 11 



9. Magpies, Bamboos, and Peach. 

Painted by Lii Ki : Ming dynasty, sixteenth century. 

Kakemono on silk, the peach-blossoms coloured, the rest in monochrome (A., 
Cat. p. 500, no. 34). 

10. Philosopher and Disciples. 

Painted by SI-KIN KU-TSZE : Ming dynasty, fifteenth 

century. 

Kakemono on paper, in colours (A., Cat. p. 500, no. 37). 
The personage represented has not been identified. He is 
shown seated in a large chair and holding a palm-leaf fan. 
On the right is a boy carrying a tray on which are some 
lacquered cups with golden spoons ; towards the left stand 
two men, probably disciples, and against these a boy with a 
case of books. A very small white horse is tied to a lac- 
quered post in the foreground near the middle of the 
picture. The principal accessories are a tortoise, a stag, a 
crane, and a pine-tree, all emblematic of longevity. A 
large screen appears behind the philosopher's seat. The 
types, costumes, and details are distinctively Korean rather 
than Chinese. The drawing of the heads is marked by 
extraordinary individuality and precision, while the figures 
are unfinished, the feet ill drawn, and the animals treated 
conventionally. In the native certificate the subject is 
described as a ' Chinese Emperor,' but this is evidently an 
error. 



PAINTINGS PROBABLY CHINESE (nOS. 11-13). 

The following three Buddhistic pictures were sold in Japan as 
examples of Japanese art, the pair nos. 11 and 12 being attributed 
to CHO DENSU (see below no. 14), and no. 13 to a pupil of SESSHIU 
(see below nos. 59, 60, 61). But these attributions are contested by 
some of the best experts on technical grounds, and it seems 
certain that they are all three ini reality original works of 
Chinese painting; nos. 11 and 12 especially works of a very high 
antiquity. 

11. An Arhat and an Apsaras. 

Painter unknown: Sung dynasty, eleventh century? 
Kakemono on silk, in colours ; much darkened by age (A., Cat. p. 66, no. 1). 
The Arhats (Jap. Eakan) are the primitive disciples and apos- 
tles of the Buddhist faith, and are always represented in 
priestly and saintly aspect. The individual here depicted 
cannot be identified. He wears rings in his elongated ear- 
lobes, and holds a Buddhist Nio-i : the Apsaras kneeling 
before him holds an offering of peaches and a flowering 
branch of the peach-tree of Longevity. The picture is one 
of a pair : see next number. 



12 Exhibition of Chinese and Japanese Paintings. 

12. The Arhat Bhadra. 

Painter unknown : Sung dynasty, eleventh century ? 
Companion piece to the above (A., Cat. p. 66, no. 2). 

The emblematical tiger sufficiently distinguishes the Arhat 
Bhadra : who is moreover conspicuous by his elongated 
eye-brows and ear-lobes. 

13. Vimalakirti. 

Painter unknown : Ming dynasty, fifteenth century ? 
Kakemono on silk, in colours (A., p. 270, no. 1207, P. A. J. pi. 18). 

Vimalakirti was a famous Indian priest, said to have been a 
contemporary of Siikyamuni, and to have visited China. 
He is portrayed in priestly garb, seated on a mat, and 
holding a futsujin or clerical brush : his head surrounded 
by a colourless nimbus, the mark of the Arhat. The work 
shows great individuality of character, and power both of 
design and handling. 



JAPANESE PAINTINGS. 

The knowledge of the art of painting was unquestionably 
imported into Japan from China; both directly, it would seem, 
and indirectly through the painters of Korea. 

The written documents of the eighth and ninth centures, which 
comprise the oldest known records of the Japanese, make no 
allusion to the existence of any phase of pictoral art before the 
fifth century A.D. The first painter they mention was a Chinese 
immigrant of royal descent, known by the names of NANRIU and 
SHINKI. This artist is said to have come to Japan during the 
reign of the Emperor YURIAKU (457-479 A.D.), and was hospitably 
received by the ruling powers. He ended his days in his adopted 
country, leaving descendants who for many generations held 
honourable positions in the Imperial service. The fifth in succes- 
sion from NANRIU is especially noticed as having received from 
the Mikado the title of Yamato Yeslii (painter of Ja_pan), and from 
the Empress SHOTOKU, in 770 A.D., the name of OOKA NO IMIKI. 
The existence of this family may doubtless be admitted as a fact, 
"but we know nothing as to the nature of their artistic achievements. 

It is probable, however, that Japanese art education made little 
progress until the introduction of Buddhism in the middle of the 
sixth century, when the early native workers, guided by Korean 
instructors, first tried their hands upon Buddhistic pictures and 
images, beginning, at the same time, to acquire a knowledge of 
the more graphic Korean and Chinese styles of painting, as well as 
of many other branches of art. 

The first and somewhat nebulous period of the history of 
Japanese painting is brought to a close in the latter half of the ninth 



Japanese Paintings. 13 



century, when a fresh impulse was given to the art by the works 
and example of one of the greatest painters to which the country 
has given birth. KOSE NO KANAOKA rose into fame in the time of 
the Emperor SEIWA (850-859). Born in the midst of an accom- 
plished court, he lacked neither opportunity nor encouragement. 
He had access to the works of the best periods of Chinese and 
Korean art, executed before the dilettanteism of the Southern 
School had created a false ideal, and is said to have selected, as the 
model upon which his style was founded, the pictures of Wu TAO- 
TSZ', the greatest painter of the T'ang dynasty. The extraordinary 
reputation which KANAOKA acquired during his lifetime, and 
handed down to posterity, is of a kind that leaves no doubt as to 
the reality of his talents. The references to his works are precise, 
and date from the period of their production. As might be sur- 
mised, however, few of them have survived the lapse of ten cen- 
turies ; hence the range of his powers must be accepted to a great 
extent upon tradition. He is said to have excelled in landscapes^ 
figures, and horses; but unfortunately no examples of his skill 
in these directions have been preserved. All that remain to 
represent his genius are a few Buddhistic paintings, but some 
of these attest sufficiently his admirable powers of design and 
colouring. The pictures most frequently referred to in the records 
of his time were portraits of Chinese sages, painted by command 
of the Emperors under whom he served, and of these works several 
were preserved for many centuries until they fell a sacrifice to fire, 
the great enemy of all the relics of antiquity in Japan. 

The interval between the appearance of KANAOKA and the 
fifteenth century constitutes what may be defined as the second 
period in the history of Japanese art. The KOSE line, or descen- 
dants of the great KANAOKA, may be traced throughout this period, 
and were in repute chiefly as painters of Buddhist ritual pictures. 
Side by side with them other artists continued to carry on, with 
more or less of fidelity, the traditions of the Chinese school ; while 
during the eleventh century a new and native manner of painting 
was evolved, marked by several peculiar characteristics of its own, 
and known as the Yamato-Riu. Its reputed founder was a pupil of 
the KOSE line named KASUGA MOTOMITSU ; its head in the thir- 
teenth century one FUJIWARA NO TSUNETAKA, who assumed the 
family name of TOSA ; and this name was thenceforth adopted by 
his followers and descendants as the permanent title of the 
academy. 

These three schools, or more properly styles (for a single master 
might work according to each in turn) the Buddhist, the Yamato- 
Tosa, and the Chinese continued to prevail exclusively in Japanese 
painting during what we have called its second period ; that 
is from the ninth until the beginning of the fifteenth century, 
when a great and general Eenaissance took place in the art. This 
Renaissance consisted in the main of an enthusiastic return on 
the part of the followers of the Chinese school to the examples of 



14 Exhibition of Chinese and Japanese Paintings. 

the early masters of the T'ang, Sung, and Yiien dynasties, and had 
for its consequence the foundation of several new academies by 
masters avowedly basing their practice on those examples. But 
the same period had also been marked by the appearance of the 
greatest of all Japanese painters of Buddhist sacred personages 
MEICHO or CHO DENSU : and a striking reinvigoration of the power 
of the Yamato-Tosa school soon followed in the hands of SHIBA 
SONKAI, TOSA MITSUNOBU, and his son TOSA MITSUSHIGE. 

Our exhibition of Japanese paintings contains no examples of 
what have been above defined as the first and second periods of the 
art ; but opens with the period of Revival at the beginning of the 
fifteenth century. The works exhibited are divided according to 
the several schools or styles to which they belong, beginning with 
the 

BUDDHIST SCHOOL (nos. 14-19). 

The production of Buddhist sacred representations had formed, 
as has been indicated already, a large part of the practice of the 
earliest Chinese, and following them of the earliest Japanese, 
painters. There is no doubt that the first Buddhist painters of 
China had been directly inspired by the specimens of Indian 
Buddhist art imported into their country by the missionaries and 
propagators of the faith between the first and sixth centuries A.D. 
That this is so follows not only from antecedent historical pro- 
bability, but from many direct evidences, such as the almost 
invariable absence of Mongolian traits in the physiognomical 
characters given by the Chinese to the various divinities of the 
Buddhist pantheon, and the practical identity in point of dress, 
attitude, and attributes, between Indian representations of certain 
of the divine personages, and the corresponding images produced 
in China and Japan. Again, in the colouring of Chinese Buddhistic 
paintings, the selection and arrangement of pigment, while very 
unlike the practice of the older secular school of China, often pro- 
duce effects that strongly recall those of Indian work. On the 
other hand, many of the Western types were modified in the course 
of their adoption into the Middle Kingdom, not only by the in- 
fusion of new elements of artistic style, but more particularly by the 
incorporation of a symbolism appertaining to pre-existing beliefs 
in the latter country. 

The Butsu-ye, as the Japanese call the religious picture of the 
true Buddhist school or style, has certain distinctive peculiarities 
that separate it from the works of all the secular schools and styles. 

While the chief ideal of the older Chinese painters, and of their 
Japanese imitators, in secular art, was calligraphic dexterity, the 
Buddhist artist at least in temple pictures of the hieratic or 
ritual cJass (see above, p. 7) aimed principally at gorgeousness 
and impressi veness of effect. The Sketch was replaced by the 
Illumination. The first, with, its sober monochrome or subdued 
local tints, and its bold sweeping stroke of pencil, appealed chiefly 



Japanese Paintings. Buddhist School. 15 

to the educated perceptions of the few : while the other aimed at 
attracting the untrained senses of the people by a gorgeous but 
studied play of gold and colour, and a richness of mounting and 
accessories, that appear strangely at variance with the begging 
bowl and patched garments of primitive Buddhism. 

Gold was the one thing essential to the Buddhist altar-piece, 
and sometimes when applied upon a black ground is the only 
material used. In all cases it is employed with an unsparing 
hand. It appears in uniform masses, as in the body of the Buddha 
or in the golden lakes of the Western paradise ; in minute diapers 
upon brocades and clothing ; in circlets or undulating rays, to form 
the glory surrounding the head of Amitabha; in raised bosses and 
rings upon the armlets or necklets of the Bodhisattvas and Devas, 
and in a hundred other manners. The pigments chosen to har- 
monise with this display are necessarily body-colours of the most 
pronounced hues, untoned by any trace of chiaroscuro. Such 
materials as these would sorely try the average artist, but the 
Oriental painter knows how to dispose them without risk of 
crudity or gaudiness, and the precious metal, however lavishly 
applied, is generally distributed over the picture with a judgment 
that would make it difficult to alter or remove any part without 
detriment to the beauty of the work. 

Drawing in Buddhist art held a place to some extent secondary 
to that of the colouring. It varied considerably in style, was 
sometimes stiff and formal, at others free and graceful, and in the 
pictures of CHO DENSU and the older Yamato artists often assumed 
the vigorously graphic type characteristic of the great T'ang 
masters. 

Of invention little can be said. Workers in this style have from 
first to last been fettered by traditions considered almost holy in 
their antiquity and origin, and many remarkable painters down to 
the present century have exhausted their faculties in mere repeti- 
tion of hieratic types and compositions handed down to them ages 
before by Koreans and Chinese, feeling most proud when their 
labour was thought a worthy copy of a foreign original. 

14. An Arhat with a Lion. 

Painted by CHO DENSU : 1351-1427. 

Kakemono on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 66, no. 3, P. A. J. pi. 8). 

Meicho, better known as Clio Densu, a priest of the temple of 
Tofukuji, in Kioto, was an older contemporary of the 
Italian painter-monk Fra Angelico, and offers a curious 
parallel to his European brother in talent, character, and 
calling. His skill is the subject of fabulous legends, and 
many anecdotes record the unsought fame won by the 
simple mind, devout belief, and indifference to temporal 
rewards, that maintained him throughout the long years of 



16 Exhibition of Chinese and Japanese Paintings. 

his life in the seclusion of the monastic retreat which 
derives its chief renown from the fruits of his labours. He 
died in 1427, at the age of seventy-six. The personage 
here depicted cannot be certainly identified. 

15. The Thirteen Buddhas. 

Painter unknown : fifteenth century ? 
Kakemono on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 72, no. 25). 

The figures depicted are arranged as follows : 

Akasagarbha. 

Amitabha. Akshobhya. Yairochhana. 

Mahasthamaprapta. Avalokitesvara. Bhaishajya Guru. 
Maitreya. Kshitigarbha. Samantabhadra. 

Manjusrl. Sakyamuni. Achala. 

This picture offers an admirable example of the firm delicacy 
of outline and harmony of colouring of the earlier Butsu-ye f 
or Buddhist temple- pictures of Japan. 

16. Amitabha and Bodhisattvas. 

Painter unknown : eighteenth century. 
Kakemono on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 74, no. 29). 

Amitabha (Jap. Amida), the most popular Buddha both in 
China and Japan, is one of the inventions of the Mahayana 
school, and dates from about 300 A.D. He is supposed to 
preside with Kwanyin (Avalokitesvara) over the Paradise in 
the West, where the good may enjoy long ages of rest, but 
without interruption to the circle of transmigrations. He 
here appears surrounded by his retinue of the ' Twenty-five 
Bodhisattvas,' most of whom have feminine forms, and are 
playing upon instruments of music. The space around the 
heavenly choir is filled with floating lotus-petals, flowers, 
and divine images. 

17. Amitabha. 

Painted by ZO-JQ-JI DAI-SO-JO (chief priest of the temple of 

ZGJOJI) : early nineteenth century. 

Kakemono en silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 67, no. 5, P. A. J. pi. 10). 
Chinese Buddhists recognise nine forms of Amitabha, each 
characterised by a peculiar position (inudra) of the hands and 
fingers. The form here represented is distinguished as 
Jo-bon Jo-sho (' the first form, first birth '). The hands rest 
upon the knees, palms upwards, and the fingers bent in such 
a manner that the backs of the two last joints of the one hand 
are in contact with the corresponding parts of the opposite 
hand. The present is a peculiarly fine example of the 
decorative and hieratic work of the Buddhist school in com- 
paratively recent times. 



Japanese Paintings. Buddhist School. 17 

18. The Amitabha Trinity. 

Painted and written by EN-JIN-SAI : eighteenth century. 
Kakemono on paper, in colours (A., Cat. p. 66, no. 4). 

This picture has the peculiarity that the outlines of the three 
figures of Amitabha, Avalokitesvara, and Mahastharaaprapta 
are formed by minutely written characters composing the 
Sutras known in Japan as the Sambu Kid and Amida Kid. 
The first of these compositions is repeated thrice, the second 
twenty-five times. 

19. Assemblage of Buddhist Divinities.. 

Painter unknown : seventeenth century. 
Kakemono on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 81, no. 59). 

The figures are too numerous for complete description. The 
principal image of the central group is that of Vairotchana 
(Dai Nichi Niorai). Above, below, to the left, and to the 
right of this are four Buddhas, viz., Akshobhya (East), 
Amitabha (West), Amogha (North), Eatnasambhava 
(South), and alternating with these are four Bodhisattvas. 
Beneath are three prominent figures, that in the middle line 
probably representing Akasagarbha, that on the left the 
Eleven-faced Kwanyin, that on the right another manifes- 
tation of Kwanyin. The remaining forms are mostly 
familiar groups of divinities, such as those of the Sixteen 
Bodhisattvas, the Twenty-five Bodhisattvas, the Seven 
Kwanyins, the Thirty-three Kwanyins, &c. 

YAMATO-TOSA SCHOOL (nos. 20-33). 

This is the oldest of the recognised native schools or styles of 
Japanese painting. Its foundation, as has been said, is attributed 
to KASUGA MOTOMITSU, who flourished in the beginning of the 
eleventh century, when it received the name of the Yamato or 
Wagwa Hiu: and in the thirteenth century one of its chiefs, 
FUJIWARA NO TSUNETAKA, assumed the family name of TOSA, 
which has been adopted ever since by the members of the school 
as its permanent title. Of the various Japanese modifications of 
Chinese art, the works of the Yamato-Tosa School are in some 
senses the most characteristic, although those of its later periods 
(and the school has continued to subsist until the present century) 
are also the feeblest and most conventional. The drawings of the 
Yamato-Tosa artists are executed, as a rule, with finer pencils and 
a minuter finish than those of other schools, and, though suffi- 
ciently firm and delicate, look timid beside the Chinese art. But 
the beauty of the productions of this academy is most seriously 
marred by the incorrect and ungraceful rendering of the human 
figure, exemplified in the doll-like imbecility of their portraitures 
of the lords and ladies who represented the high culture of old 

c 



18 Exhibition of Chinese and Japanese Paintings. 

Kioto. This mannerism was perhaps rather the fault of a tradi- 
tion than of any lack of artistic discrimination ; for the same 
painters could, on occasion, abandon their formal and rather 
wearisome illustrations of Court life to dash off fresh and uncon- 
ventional sketches, which displayed both the power of the Chinese 
School, and the humour of the modern artisan designers. 

The colouring of the later Yamato-ye was as decorative as the 
use of gold and brilliant pigments could make it, and the coloured 
areas were so subdivided as to give almost the effect of a brocaded 
pattern ; but although the disposition of contrasts was in some 
respects at variance with English canons, and a bright verdigris 
green was too freely used, the effect as a whole has much of the 
rich harmony of the illuminations of the fourteenth century 
missals. 

One innovation in the practice of the Yamato artists was the 
expedient of spiriting away the roof from any building of which 
they desired to expose the interior. This licence appears to have 
no precedent in Chinese pictorial art. 

The favourite motives of the school were drawn from biographies 
of famous scholars, priests, or heroes; poetical compositions; 
Chinese or native legends and romances especially the Genji 
Monogatari, the Sumiyoshi Monogatari, the story of Urashima, 
the story of the Muge-Hojiu Gem, the Adventures of Raiko and 
his companions, and the history of the lives of Yoshitsune and 
Benkei; temple inventories; and ceremonials of the Mikado's 
Court. The artists, however, frequently also painted Buddhist 
pictures, and moreover left many sketches of horses, birds, 
flowers, and other objects in the simple style of the old Chinese 
masters, as well as designs in a spirit of fun and caricature. 

20. Horses at Exercise. 

Attributed to TO-SA MITSU-NOBU : fifteenth century. 
Portion of a makimono, on paper, in colours (A., Cat. p. 155, no. 494, com- 
pare P. A. /., tig. 121). 

21, 22. Horses in their Stalls. 

Attributed to TO-SA MITSU-SHIGE : sixteenth century. 
Unmounted drawings, on paper, in colours (A., Cat. p. 150, nos. 422, 428). 
From a set of twelve : the remainder of the set are not 
exhibited. 

23. Quail and Millet. 

Painter unknown : sixteenth century ? 
Kakemono on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 135, no. 256). 
The quail in the Japanese picture is generally represented 
together with the millet, an association of ideas comparable 
with that which connects the swallow with the willow-tree, 
and the peacock with the peony. It is probable that nearly 
all of these groupings have their origin in famous poetical 
compositions. 



Japanese Paintings. Yamato-Tosa School. 19 

24. Saigio Hoshi at Kita Shirakawa. 

Painted by TO-SA MITSU-NARI : seventeentli century. 

Kakemono on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 120, no. 204). 
Sato Hioye Norikiyo better known as Saigio Hoshi was the 
seventh in descent from the famous Tawara Toda Hidesato, 
the slayer of the great Centipede. He held office in the 
Court of the Emperor Toba, but in the year 1137 abruptly 
abandoned his home and became a priest. Under the names 
of Eni and Saigio he travelled through various parts of 
Japan, for self-discipline, until scarcely a place remained that 
he had not explored. He is celebrated as a poet, the most 
familiar of his compositions being a verse upon the Peerless 
Mountain. He died in 1198 at the age of seventy-three. 
He is here represented, as usual, in the dress of a travelling 
priest, with a staff and a very large hat, and stands in a 
listening attitude at the gate of a mansion. The perspec- 
tive exposes the interior of a room, on the floor of which is 
seen a musical instrument (biica). An inscription in grass 
characters appears at the upper part of the picture. 

25. Robin and Waterfall. 

Painted by SUMI-YOSHI HIRO-MICHI : seventeenth century. 

Kakemono on paper, in monochrome lightly touched with colour (A., Cat. 
p. 120, no. 202). 

The bird represented is the Japanese Eobin (Erythrseus 
dkdbige). The drawing is in a slight and sketchy manner 
less characteristic of the Tosa than of the earlier Chinese 
practice and that of the modern Japanese schools derivative 
from it. 

26. The House of a Court Noble. 

Said to be copied from a picture by SUMI-YOSHI HIRO-CHIKA : 

who worked in the fifteenth century. 
Kakemono on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 124, no. 212). 
The interior of the building is exposed by the curious artistic 
licence of removing the roof, a plan which is characteristic 
of this school, and which has also the advantage of display- 
ing a greater amount of the scenery beyond. The dresses, 
the simplicity of furniture, the gorgeous decorative effects 
produced by screens and panels, are all deserving of notice, 
as illustrating the aspects of genuine ' high life ' in Japan. 

27. Goshawk (Astur palumbarius) on perch. 

Painted by SUMI-YOSHI HIRO-MASA (!TA-YA KEI-SHIU) : 

eighteenth century. 
Kakemono on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 127, no. 228, P. A. J. pi. 61). 

One of a pair : see next number. The vigorous and life-like 
drawing of these birds is curiously at variance with the 
laborious and conventional execution of the historical and 
semi-historical pictures by which the Tosa artists are best 
known. c 2 



20 Exhibition of Chinese and Japanese Paintings. 

28. Goshawk on perch. 

Painted "by SUMIYOSHI HIROMASA (!TA-YA KEI-SHIU) : 
eighteenth century. 

Kakemono on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 127, no. 229). 
Companion piece to the above. 

29. The Seven Gods of Good Fortune. 

Painted by SUMI-YOSHI HIRO-MASA (!TA-YA KEI-SHIU) : 
eighteenth century. 

Kakemono on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 127, no. 225). 

The Seven Gods of Good Fortune (Jap. Shichifukujin), con- 
stituting a kind of popular appendage to the Buddhist 
pantheon, are the most familiar of all divinities in Japanese 
art, and though both their origin and functions are obscure, 
are at all times easily to be recognised by their attributes. 
In the present picture Fukurokujiu, the tall-headed, appears 
in the sky riding on a crane ; while Bishamon, dressed as 
usual in armour, and retaining something of his Buddhistic 
dignity, stands next below. Beside him the female member 
of the group, Benten, plays on the biwa, and following in a 
semi-circle from right to left, Jurojin wearing a high hat 
and fan, Hotei half disappearing in the huge bag on which 
he leans, Ebisu, having beside him in a basket the red 
fai-fish which is his emblem, and Daikoku reclining against 
his rice-bale and holding his mallet in his hand, all watch 
with upturned faces the approach of Fukurokujiu. 

30. Scenes from the Genji Monogatari. 

Painted by TO-SA MITSU-YOSHI : eighteenth century. 

Portion of a makimono, on paper, in colours (A., Cat. p. 137, no. 268). 

The Genji Monogatari, one of the earliest of the Japanese 
romances, was written about the end of the tenth century 
by Murasaki Shikibu, a maid-of-honour to the lady who- 
afterwards became the consort of the Emperor Ichijo. It 
consists of fifty-four chapters ; the first forty-one relating 
to the life, adventures, and amorous intrigues of Prince 
Genji, a kind of Japanese Don Juan ; the rest, (of which 
ten are supposed to have been added by the daughter of 
the authoress,) referring principally to the career of one of 
his sons. The period of time covered by the whole story is. 
about sixty years, and the scenes are for the most part laid 
in Kioto. 

31. Cranes (Grus viridirostris). 

Painted by TO-SA MITSU-SADA : 1805. 

Kakemono on silk, in colours (A., Cat. 238). 



Japanese Paintings. Yamato-Tosa and Chinese Schools. 21 

32. Scenes from the Life of Honen Shonin. 

Painter unknown : sixteenth century ? 
Kakemono on silk (A., Cat. p. 134, no. 243). 

One of a set of three : the other two are not exhibited. 

The picture is subdivided by means of conventional clouds 
into a number of compartments, in which the different 
episodes of the story are represented, a device especially 
characteristic of this school. Honen Shonin, known also as 
Enko Daishi, was born in 1133 in the province of Mimasaka, 
his birth being attended by various portents. At the age 
of fourteen he was sent to the great monastery of Hiyeizan, 
where he made rapid progress in study, and developed a 
special doctrine of salvation which became the creed of a 
new sect called the Jodo-shiu. In 1207 he settled at Kidto, 
and five years later died there at the age of seventy-nine. 

33. The Night-March of the Hundred Demons. 

Painted by SUMI-YOSHI HIRO-NAGA : nineteenth century. 

Portion of a makimono, on paper, in colours (A., Cat. p. 136, no. 262). 
A grotesque procession of demons, who are seen lightening 
the tedium of their journey by tricks and mockery, in 
travesty of the ceremonials of man, till we reach the van 
of the troop, who recoil and flee in confusion from the glare 
of the rising sun, which disperses the weird forms of the 
night-clouds. Copied from an ancient makimono by an 
unknown artist of the Tosa school, probably anterior to the 
fifteenth century. 

[For other examples of the Yamato-Tosa School, see below, 
Second Series, nos. 134-157.] 

CHINESE SCHOOL (nos. 34-58). 

After the time of KANAOKA, through the greater part of the 
second period of Japanese painting, the authority of the early 
Chinese masters seems to have been comparatively weak, and their 
traditions to have languished, while the main strength of the 
artists of Japan was put forth in the production either of Buddhist 
temple-pictures, or of works in the Yamato-Tosa style last illus- 
trated. But in the fifteenth century came a great and far-reaching 
revival of Chinese influence. The centre and starting-point of 
this influence was the school directed by JOSETSU, a priest of 
Kioto, in the first years of the fifteenth century. 

After a profound study of the pictures of the celebrated artists 
of the Sung and Yuen dynasties, JOSETSU established at the temple 
of Sokokuji, in the Imperial city, a monastic academy for the pro- 
mulgation of their teachings, and grouped around him a body of 
pupils destined to initiate a new departure in the art-history of 
their country. Little is known of this painter, and it is even 



22 Exhibition of Chinese and Japanese Paintings. 

uncertain whether he was of Japanese or Chinese birth : his paint- 
ings, moreover, are too rare or questionable to furnish any safe 
criterion of his powers. But by his teaching are said to have 
been inspired the founders of three out of the four schools which 
monopolised the attention of the artistic world in Japan down to 
the middle of the last century; SHIUBUN, SESSHIU, and KANO 
MASANOBU. 

To the two latter we shall come presently. The first, SHIUBUN, 
did not, as the others did, give his name to any new academy, but 
must be regarded as the virtual founder of that which since his 
time has been specifically known as the ' Chinese ' school of Japan- 
ese painting. To this school are reckoned as belonging all those 
artists, down to the present century, who turning their backs 
upon the native traditions of the courtly Yamato-Tosa style, have 
practised according to Chinese example, without at the same time 
enrolling themselves in any of the academies founded by and 
named after particular masters who took part in the revival of the 
Chinese taste. 

Such artists, from the days of JOSETSU almost to our own, have 
been too numerous for any mention of even their leading names to 
be attempted here. Several of them will be found characteristic- 
ally represented in the following section of the Exhibition. Speak- 
ing generally, they have been accustomed to adopt not only the 
style belt the motives of the famous masters of the Sung and Yuen 
dynasties, and to draw their historical, legendary, and religious 
inspirations almost entirely from the literature or paintings of the 
Middle Kingdom. 

A vast number of their pictures are composed from no more 
ambitious material than a slight reminiscence of vegetable life, 
such as a limb of bamboo or pine, a peony or orchid, or a flowering 
branch of plum or peach. Spirited and life-like sketches of birds, 
of which the favourites were the crane, the hawk, the pheasant, the 
peacock, the sparrow, the bunting, the quail, the starling, the fowl, 
the cuckoo, and the wood-pigeon, were equally common, and in 
most cases conveyed to the Chinese and Japanese a poetical or 
emblematic meaning, that ensured a lasting popularity for the 
motive. The examples selected from the mammalia were more 
limited, being almost confined to the horse, the mule, the dog, the 
ox, and a long-armed species of monkey. The tortoise and 
serpent were the principal representatives of the reptiles ; and 
amongst fishes, the carp, as an emblem of perseverance, held the 
highest place of honour. Insect life, except as an accessory, was 
rather the property of a few individual painters than of the art. 
Side by side with these creatures of the natural world, others 
belonging to supernatural or mythical zoology monstrous 
animals and monstrous men of various significance and invention 
have abounded in the representations of this school. 

The Chinese artist had a special predilection for the wilder 
forms of picturesque beauty in landscape. Cascades, pools, and 



Japanese Paintings. Chinese School. 23 

streams ; towering silicic peaks and rugged headlands ; gnarled 
fantastic pines and plum-trees, side by side with the graceful 
stem and feathery foliage of the bamboo ; mansions or pavilions 
crowning the heights or bordering the expanse of an inland lake, 
and straw- thatched cottages nestling in the valleys ; these were 
elements that the Chinese landscape-painter lived to assort and 
reconstruct into a thousand pictures. The Japanese painters of 
the present and allied schools, seduced by the charms of this 
foreign ideal, were often led to neglect the more familiar attrac- 
tions of their own scenery, and without having beheld any of the 
spots depicted by the old landscape masters of China, squandered 
an infinity of talent and ingenuity in building up new creations 
of their own with the material borrowed from their neighbours. 

The most frequently repeated studies of the figure were calli- 
graphic portraitures of Buddhist divinities, Taoist genii, and 
historical celebrities in the domains of war, politics or learning ; 
with illustrations of historical events, especially those belonging 
to the rise and fall of the Han dynasty (206 B.C.-220 A.D.), and of 
tales of feudal devotion and of filial piety ; designed commonly with 
much power, but showing little heed for academical truth. On 
the other hand, portraits from life, which were not rare, were 
almost always formal, ungraceful, and inexpressive, and stood at 
great disadvantage amongst the other pictorial works of the 
Chinese painter and of his Japanese imitator. 

34. Chinese Landscape. 

Painted by SHIU-BUN : late fifteenth centuiy. 

Kakemono on paper, in monochrome (A., Cat. p. 197, no. 601, P. A. J. pi. 14). 
This picture, attributed to the virtual founder of the school, 
is a typical example of its class. The scene is not studied 
from nature, but composed by a loving imitation of older 
Chinese models, and does not in any way represent the 
native landscape of Japan. The next five numbers all 
illustrate the same phase of art. 

35. Chinese Landscape. 

Painted by EIU-KIO : sixteenth century ? 

Fan-mount on paper, in monochrome, mounted as a kakemono (A., Cat. 
p. 108, no. 603). 

36. Chinese Landscape. 

Painted by SO-AMI : late fifteenth century. 

Kakemono on paper, in monochrome (A., Cat. p. 198, no. 603). 

37. 38. Chinese Landscapes ; a pair. 

Painted by NA-RA HO-GEN : fifteenth century. 

Kakemonos on paper, in colours (A., Cat. p. 198, nos. 1135, 1136). 

39. Chinese Landscape ; a panorama. 

Painted by SO-GA JA-SOKU : fifteenth century. 
Portion of a makimono, on paper, in monochrome (A., Cat. \\ 248, no. 862, 
P. A. J. pi. 16). 



24 Exhibition of Chinese and Japanese Paintings. 

40. Seiobo and Mojo Sennin. 

Painted by YIU-HI : eighteenth century. 
Kakemono on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 293, no. 778). 
Seiobo (Chinese Si Wang Mu), a kind of Queen of the 
Genii adopted by the Chinese Buddhists from the older 
Taoist mythology, is identified by her tiara and the female 
attendant carrying her fan; Mojo (Chinese Mao Nil) by 
her cloak of skins or leaves, and her emblem, the peach- 
bloom of immortality. The deer at her side is also a symbol 
of longevity. 

41. Cat, Plants, and Insects. 

Painter unknown : seventeenth century ? 
Kakemono on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 238, no. 804). 

A masterpiece of somewhat indeterminate date and school. 
The plants represented are amaranthus, convolvulus, and 
two kinds of hibiscus. The cat crouches, intently watching 
an insect of the beetle tribe on a spray just over it, while 
two other beetles are seen flying in the air above. 

42. Chinese Scene : a Visit. 

Painted by RIU-RI-KIO : eighteenth century. 
Kakemono on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 200, no. 611). 

One of a set of three : the two others are not exhibited. 
Eiurikio is specially noted for having introduced in Japan 
imitations of a particular highly-coloured manner of painting 
characteristic of the latest phase of Chinese art under the 
Ming Dynasty. 

43. Starlings on Bough. (Turdus cineraceus) : with Chrysan- 

themum. 

Painted by To-so : 1757. 
Kakemono on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 231, no. 766). 

44. The Pox Wedding. 

Painted by KO-ZAN : nineteenth century. 

Kakemono on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 214, no. 675). 
Representations in which the ceremonies of mankind are 
travestied by the lower animals are frequent in Japanese 
art : compare below, no. 107. The notion of the fox 
wedding, however, belongs to the order of animal super- 
stitions actually prevailing in rural Japan. 

45. Squirrel and Vine : Moonlight. 

Painted by SHI-KO SO-RIN : early nineteenth century. 
Kakemono on silk, in monochrome (A., Cat. p. 228, no. 747). 

46. Sparrows (Passer montanus) and Convolvulus. 

Painted by SHI-KO SO-RIN : nineteenth century. 
Kakemono on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 228, no. 778). 



Japanese Paintings. Chinese School. 25 

47. Buntings (Emberiza rusticd) and Millet. 

Painted by TAN-I BUN-CHO : early nineteenth, century. 
Kakemono on silk, in monochrome touched with colour (A., Cat. p. 243, 
no. 836). 

48. Chinese Sage. 

Painted by TAN-I Bux-cno : 1797. 

Kakemono on silk, in monochrome (A., Cat. p. 242, no. 829). 

49. Carp. 

Painted by TAN-I BUN-CEO : early nineteenth century. 

Kakemono on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 243, no. 832). 

50. 51. Flowers, a Pair. 

Painted by TO-RIN : early nineteenth century. 
Kakemono on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 230, nos. 760, 761). 
The flowers represented in 50 are chrysanthemum, single 
peony, convolvulus, desmodeum, and a kind of everlasting : 
in 51, cherry, double peony, three kinds of iris, including 
the small Iris japonica, vetch, and Japanese violet. 

52. Plum-blossom and full Moon. 

Painted by UCHI-DA GEX-TAI : ninteenth century. 

Kakemono on silk, in monochrome touched with colour (A., Cat. p. 205, 
no. 635). 

53. Golden Pheasant (Pliasianus pictus). 

Painted by 0-Nism KEI-SAI : nineteenth century. 
Kakemono on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 210, no. 661, P. A. J., pi. 44). 

54. Egrets (Ardea modesta) in Rain. 

Painted by O-NISHI KEI-SAI : nineteenth century. 
Kakemono on silk, in monochrome (A., Cat. p. 210, no. 663). 

55. Female Sennin on Phoenix. 

Painted by KAKU-DO : nineteenth century. 
Kakemono on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 209, no. 658). 

56. Chinese Lady and Monkeys. 

Painted by SAKU-RAI SHIU-ZAN, a female artist : early nine- 
teenth century. 

Kakemono on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 241, no. 840). 
The execution is in the style of the Shi jo School. 

57. Jigoku Reigan. 

Painted by NAM-MEI : nineteenth century. 
Kakemono on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 219, no. 697, P. A. J. pi. 41). 
Reigan was a famous courtesan of the fifteenth century : the 
prefix Jigoku, i.e. Hell, is derived from her ceremonial 
embroidered garment here depicted. 

58. Buzzard (Butaster indicus) on Pine-bough. 

Painted by NAM-MEI : nineteenth century. 
Kakemono on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 219, no. 199). 

[For other examples of the Chinese School of painting in Japan, 
see below, Second Series, nos. 158-168.] 



26 Exhibition of Chinese and Japanese Paintings. 



SESSHIU SCHOOL (nos, 59-61*). 

The School of SESSHIU was one of the branches of the revived 
Chinese School of the fifteenth century, and its founder had the 
advantage of studying the parent art in its native place. 

SESSHIU, a scion of the noble family of Ota, was born at Akabama, 
in the province of Bichiu, in 1421. In course of time he became a 
pupil of JOSETSU, in Sokokuji, and under his teaching acquired the 
manner which brings much of his work into close association with 
that of SHIUBUN and certain other artists of the same period. In 
middle age he determined to make a voyage to China to see there 
the works of the old masters, and study the scenery that had 
inspired them. On his arrival he sought for a teacher amongst 
the noted artists of the time, but the men whose works were laid 
before him fell short of his ideal, and he resolved ' to seek in- 
struction from the mountains, rivers, and trees of the country.' He 
painted many pictures during his stay, including some remi- 
niscences of Japan, and at length his fame spread until it reached 
the Emperor. It is regarded as one of the most signal honours 
ever paid to Japanese art that SESSHIU received a command to 
paint a picture upon the wall of the Imperial palace. 

After his return to Japan he lived in the temple of Unkokuji 
(whence the name of UNKOKU adopted by himself and many of his 
pupils and followers), and founded a new school from which issued 
many celebrated painters. He continued his work until an 
advanced age, and so unimpaired were his powers that some of his 
most valued pictures were drawn after he had numbered fourscore 
years. He died in 1507, at the age of eighty-six. 

According to a native authority, the skill of SESSHIU " was the 
gift of nature ; for he did not follow in the footsteps of the 
ancients, but developed a style peculiar to himself. His power 
was greatest in landscape, after which he excelled most in figures, 
then in flowers and birds ; and he was also skilful in the delinea- 
tion of oxen, horses, dragons, and tigers. In drawing figures and 
animals he completed his sketch with a single stroke of the brush, 
and of this style of working he is considered the originator. He 
preferred to paint in monochrome, and rarely made use of colours." 

It is difficult for a European to estimate SESSHIU at his true 
value. His style was in its essential features the same as that of 
SHIUBUN: and notwithstanding the boast of the artist that the 
scenery of China was his only teacher, and the credit bestowed 
upon him by his admirers of having invented a new style, he 
seems to have departed little from the artificial rules accepted by 
his fellow painters. He was, however, an artist of genuine 
power, and his renderings of Chinese scenery bear evidences of 
local study that we look for in vain in the works of his successors. 
It is in landscape that his skill is most unmistakeable. 



Japanese Paintings. Sessliiii and Kano Schools. 27 

His materials were few. He usually painted upon Chinese 
paper with a moderately large brush, and his drawings were either 
in monochrome, or strongly outlined in ink, with a few light 
washes of local colour. His touch was wonderfully firm, expressive, 
and facile, and possessed a calligraphic beauty that none but a 
Chinese or Japanese can thoroughly appreciate. 

The two chief pupils of SESSHIU were SHIUGETSU, of Satsuma, 
and SESSON of Hitachi ; but a number of other artists of less note 
are recorded as having belonged to his academy during the sixteenth 
and seventeenth centuries. 

59. Hotel and Children. 

Painted by SES-SHIU : 1503. 

Kakemono on silk, in colours : presented to the Museum by Mr. A. W.- 
Franks (A., Cat. p. 269, no. 1204). 

Of the Shichifukujin, or Seven Gods of Good Fortune, Hotei 
(i.e. i Cloth-bag,' so named from the emblem which is inse- 
parable from him) is the most popular character, and the- 
especial friend and playmate of children. The present 
picture is inscribed as having been painted by Sesshiu at 
the age of eighty-three. 

60. Storm Dragon. 

Painted by SES-SHIU : 1502. 

Kakemono on paper, in monochrome (A., Cat. p. 269, no. 1202, P. A. J* 
fig. 16). 

One of a set of three pictures inscribed as having been painted 
by the artist at the age of eighty-two. The companion 
subjects, not exhibited, are a tiger, and a figure of Jurojin 
(one of the Seven Gods of Good Fortune). 

61. Chinese Landscape. 

Painted by SES-SHIU : fifteenth century. 

Kakemono on silk, sketched in ink and lightly tinted with colour (A., Cat, 
p. 269, no. 1205). 

61*. Chinese Landscape. 

Painted by SES-SHIU : fifteenth century. 

Screen decoration on paper, lightly tinted in colours (A., Cat. p. 273, no.- 
1228). 

This is a characteristic example on a larger scale of the class 
of decorative landscape in imitation of the Chinese painted 
by the pupils of Josetsu. Originally used for a folding 
screen, and afterwards removed and rolled up, it has now 
been remounted and stretched across the back of the folding 
screen, no. 69, standing on the floor of the room. 

KANO SCHOOL (nos. 62-75). 

The Kano school represents the third great branch of the 
fifteenth-century revival of Chinese teaching in Japan. It had for 



28 Exhibition of Chinese and Japanese Paintings. 

its first master a scion of the Fujiwara clan named KANO MASA- 
NOBU, who was born at Odawara, in the province of Sagami, about 
1424. MASANOBU is said to have studied painting under SHIUBUN 
and OGURI SOTAN (see Chinese School), and, according to a doubtful 
tradition, was at first a pupil of JOSETSU. He seems, however, to 
have exercised his skill merely as an amateur until SESSHIU, after 
his return from China, was struck by his work and brought him 
under the notice of the Shogun Yoshimasa. 

He died about 1520 at the advanced age of ninety-six, leaving 
two sons, OINOSUKE (afterwards called MOTONOBU) and UTANO- 
SUKE (afterwards YUKINOBU). The former of these two eclipsed 
his father in gifts and reputation, and must be considered the 
virtual head and founder of the school. Little is known as to 
MOTONOBU'S early life and education, but it is said that many years 
of his 3'outh were spent in rambles through the country, with empty 
purse and encumbered only by a change of clothing and the neces- 
.sary implements of his craft ; stopping to sketch whatever pleased 
his eye ; and paying his way with the produce of his brush. He 
worked thus in poverty, and almost in obscurity, until between 
1504 and 1521 he sent a number of his works to China, and one of 
the most celebrated painters of that country was so strongly 
impressed by their power that he wrote a letter to the artist, com- 
paring them to the drawings of CHAO CHANG and MA YUEN, and 
-expressing a wish to become his pupil. The famous metal worker 
GOTO YUJO, the Benvenuto Cellini of the age, contracted an 
intimate friendship with the painter, whose designs he adopted in 
the engraving of sword ornaments. His painted fans were chosen 
.as ceremonial gifts to the Emperor and Shogun. Lastly, the head 
of the ancient and aristocratic Tosas, MLTSUSHIGE, thought him 
worthy of the hand of his daughter, herself an artist of no small 
talent; and MOTONOBU passed the remainder of a long life in great 
honour and prosperity. He died at the age of eighty-two in 
1559. 

His most characteristic paintings, like those of SESSHIU, derived 
little aid from mechanical finish or complexity of materials, but 
were for the most part sketches either in monochrome or lightly 
tinted with colour, and were dashed in with extraordinary facility, 
.and with a calligraphic force that has never been surpassed. All 
his works display evidence of the Chinese origin of his teaching, 
transmitted probably through his father from OGURI SOTAN and 
.SHIUBUN. 

According to his biographers, he took for his models in landscape 
the works of MA. YUEN, HIA KWEI, MUH Ki, YUH KIEN, SHUN Ku, 
,and Tsz' CHAO ; in birds and flowers he followed CHAO CHANG, MA 
YUEN, and SHUN Kti ; his colouring was in the style of MA YUEN, 
HIA KWEI, LIANG Cm, and NGAN Hwui; and he occasionally 
painted in the Japanese manner after NOBUZANE and TOSA MITSUNOBU. 

He left three sons, and his manner of painting was preserved 
-with more or less modification by his younger brother UTAKO- 



Japanese Paintings. Kano School. 29 

SUKE, and by his earlier descendants and the adopted pupils of his 
line. The renown of the school lost nothing under his son SHOYEI 
and his grandson YEITOKU, or under its collateral adherents SAX- 
KAKU and SANSETSU. TANYU, the fourth in descent from MOTO- 
NOBU, was one of the most vigorous and original painters of the 
Academy, and ranks next to the master in the estimation of the 
Japanese ; his brothers NAONOBU and YASUNOBU were worthy 
associates ; and, lastly, TOUN and TSUNENOBU took a high position 
amongst the leading artists of the seventeenth century. 

The works of the KANO academy exhibit two distinct manners- 
with many intermediate gradations ; the one characterised by 
rapidity of execution and simplicity of material, the other by deco- 
rative effect, in which full play was given for complexity of design 
and splendour of Colouring. The first style, in which SESSHIU had 
excelled, was practised by all the KANO artists, but reached its 
highest perfection and greatest extravagance in the drawings of 
TANYU. The most ' impressionistic ' of these sketches were land- 
scapes, many of which offer an extraordinary combination of 
artistic treatment with a dexterity that approached dangerously 
near to pictorial jugglery. Such works were most frequently in 
monochrome, but occasionally the effect was heightened by a few 
light washes of colour. 

The second or decorative manner was distinguished in most 
cases by a more careful outline, usually with a finer brush, and by 
a free, often lavish use of gold and colour. It was comparatively 
little favoured by the artists of the first three generations, but 
began to appear in some force in the mural embellishments of the 
great castles carried out in the time of Hideyoshi by his proteges? 
YEITOKU and SANRAKU, and became more and more pronounced 
from the beginning of the eighteenth century, till at length all 
the brilliancy and elaboration of the Tosa and Buddhist paintings 
reappeared in the works of the school whose acknowledged master- 
pieces were found amongst the unobtrusive monochromes and 
lightly-tinted sketches of MOTONOBU and TANYU. The sharp 
decisive touch of the early masters, with its arbitrary variations in 
breadth of stroke, is, however, apparent in nearly all the works of 
the academy, and enables the connoisseur to distinguish specimens- 
in which the other characteristics have been lost. 

The motives favoured by the KANO artists were mostly classical 
Chinese sages, Chinese landscapes, Buddhist divinities in the 
style of the old Chinese masters, and reproductions of the animals 
and flowers' that had appeared in the works of the Yuen and early 
Ming periods all delineated and coloured with Chinese conven- 
tionality ; but Japanese subjects were by no means excluded, and 
occasionally the territories of other schools were trespassed upon 
by illustrations of ancient semi-historical stories in the Yamato-Tosa 
style ; by humorous sketches and scenes of town life in the manner 
of the popular draughtsmen ; and more rarely by Temple pictures 
on the model of the Butsu-iie. 



30 Exhibition of CJiinese and Japanese Paintings. 

62. Chung-li K'iian borne on the waves by a sword. 

Painted by KA-NO MOTO-NOBU : early sixteenth century. 

Kakemono on paper, in monochrome (A., Cat. p. 285, no. 1252, P. A. J. 
pi. 20). 

Chung-li K'iian (Jap. Shoriken) is described as the first and 
greatest of the eight Rishi of the Tao-ists, and there are 
many legends concerning his miraculous birth and powers. 
One of his usual emblems is a sword, on which he is said to 
have had the power of travelling over water. 

63. A Crane. 

Painted by KA-NO MOTO-NOBU : early sixteenth century. 
Kakemono on paper, in colours (A., Cat. p. 286, no. 1258). 

64. Sparrow-Hawk and Quail. 

Painted by KA-NO MOTO-NOBU : early sixteenth century. 
Kakemono on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 286, no. 1259). 

Painted with great minuteness in the style of the Yamato- 
Tosa school, and on a material rarely used by this artist, 
who worked most commonly on paper. 

65. Bird on Flowering Branch. 

Painted by KA-NO UTA-NO-SUK : early sixteenth century. 
Kakemono on paper, in colours (A., Cat. p. 287, no. 1266). 

Kano Utanosuke was a younger brother of Kano Motonobu, 
and a close imitator of his manner. The bird represented 
is the Japanese Waxwing (Bomlycilla phoemcoptera). 

66. Mojo Sennin. 

Painted by KA-NO YEI-TOKU : sixteenth century. 
Kakemono on paper, in colours (A., Cat. p. 288, no. 1271). 

Mojo Sennin (Chinese Mao-Nii, compare above, no. 40) is 
described as a wild-looking woman dressed in skins or 
leaves, who having been originally a maid-of-honour in the 
Imperial Court of China, had after the fall of the T'sin 
dynasty (B.C. 206) fled to the wilderness, where by fasting 
and contemplation she had acquired freedom from the 
shackles of mortality, and entered the ranks of the Rishi or 
Sennin. 

67. Storm Dragon. 

Painted by KA-NO TAN-YU : seventeenth century. 

Kakemono on silk, in monochrome (A., Cat. p. 290, no. 1281). 

One of a pair : the companion piece, not exhibited, represents 
a tiger. Kano Tanyu, the most celebrated artist of the 
school after Motonobu, was born in 1602 and died in 1674. 
Compare the next number. 



Japanese Paintings. Kano School. 31 

8. Goshawk on Perch. 

Painted by KA-NO TAN-YU : seventeenth century. 

Kakemono on silk, .n colours (A., Cat. p. 290, no. 1280). 

One of a pair : the companion piece, also representing a 
falcon, is not exhibited. 

69. Chinese Landscape : with Scenes of Peasant Life. 

Painted by KA-NO YASU-NOBU : seventeenth century. 

Screen decoration on paper, lightly tinted in colours (A., Cat. p. 327, no. 
1573, P. A. J. pi. 24). 

The folding screen for which this picture was painted, and 011 
which it is still mounted, stands on the floor of the gallery, 
nearly facing the other works of the Kano School. Scenes 
of Chinese agricultural life are very favourite subjects with 
the artists of the Kano School : see the following examples. 

70. Rice Cultivation. 

Painted by KA-NO TO-UN : seventeenth century. 

Unmounted drawing on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 321, no. 1539). 
One of a set of four scenes of Chinese life, intended for 
mounting as a makimono. The remaining three are not 
exhibited. 

71. 'The Hundred Cranes.' 

Painted by KA-NO MICHI-NOBU (YEI-SEN) : eighteenth century. 

Portion of a makimono on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 316, no. 1445). 

Two kinds of crane are here represented : the sacred crane 
(Grus viridirostris) already figured in several examples (nos. 
6, 31, 63), and the white-naped crane (Grus leuchauchen.) 

72. Chinese Landscape : with Scenes of Peasant Life. 

Painted by KA-NO NAGA-NOBU (I-SEN HOGEN) : early nine- 
teenth century. 

Kakemono on silk, lightly tinted in colours (A., Cat. p. 298, no. 1337). 
One of a pair : the companion piece is not exhibited. 

73. Plying Squirrel (Pteromys momoga). 

Painted by KA-NO KORE-NOBU : late eighteenth century. 

Kakemono on silk, in colours (A., Cat., p. 297, no. 1329). 

74. Chinese Landscape. 

Painted by KA-NO KORE-NOBU : late eighteenth century. 

Kakemono on silk, in monochrome (A., Cat. p. 297, no. 1331). 
One of a pair : the companion piece is not exhibited. 

75. Ch'ao Yiin leaping the Chasm. 

Painted by KA-NO KADZU-NOBU : nineteenth century. 

Kakemono on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 305, no. 1376). 

The famous Chinese hero Ch'ao Yiin (Jap. CHO-UN) was a 
retainer of Liu-pci, and on the defeat of his master by Ts'ao 



32 Exhibition of Chinese and Japanese Paintings. 

Tsa'o in A.D. 195, took charge of and rescued his two wives 
and infant son. One of his adventures in the course of his 
escape was the leaping a huge chasm which yawned sud- 
denly in the ground before him. 

[For other examples of the Kano School, see below, Second 
Series, nos. 169-177.] 

POPULAR SCHOOL (nos. 76-86). 

The Popular School (Jap. Ukiyo-ye Riu) is a comparatively 
modern phase of Japanese art, the productions of which have been 
disseminated chiefly through the medium of wood-engraving. 
Native connoisseurs are accustomed to look down on the works of 
the popular artists as vulgar and trivial, in comparison with those 
of the classical academies of their country. But this school has 
had the merit of vastly extending the range and multiplying the 
subjects of artistic representation, as well as the good fortune of 
producing, in the person of the famous Hokusai, perhaps the most 
energetic and versatile of all the craftsmen of his race. 

The motives of the school are by no means limited to the scenes 
of common life, but embrace all the subjects treated by its prede- 
cessors, from Buddhist divinities to caricatures. The chief subjects 
adopted or evolved by the new men were designs for woodcut 
illustrations to printed volumes of history, legend, or fiction; 
portraits of noted actors, wrestlers, geishas, and courtesans, mostly 
reproduced in coloured wood-engraving; scenes of domestic and 
out-door existence amongst the humbler classes ; comic drawings 
of a new and unconventional type ; native scenery, chiefly in the 
form of single-sheet colour-prints and illustrations to guide-books 
for the provinces and great cities ; books of instruction in drawing, 
including both original sketches for imitation and also skilful 
reproductions of works by the old masters of China and Japan ; 
complimentary picture-cards printed for circulation at the New 
Year ; play-bills for the theatres ; and, lastly, books of patterns for 
embroiderers, dyes, pipe and comb makers, and other labourers in 
the field of art industry. 

The reputed founder of the school is one MATAHEI, a pupil of 
TOSA MITSUNARI, who after the close of the sixteenth century 
detached himself from Tosa traditions, and began to apply himself 
to the production of caricatures and scenes from ordinary life. But 
little is known of this master's work, and his example seems to 
have been without immediate effect. The virtual founder of the 
school was an artist born two generations later, HISHIGAWA MORO- 
NOBU, originally a dyer's draughtsman, who about 1680 began to 
publish a series of remarkably vigorous and original sketches, 
worthily transferred to wood by men who probably worked under 
the immediate direction of the artist. From this period, which 
may be regarded as an epoch in Japanese art, the artisan artist 



Japanese Paintings. Popular School. 33 

and the wood-engraver have laboured together with a perfect 
sympathy, and their joint productions may fairly claim a place 
apart, and one of the most prominent, in the general history of 
wood- en g raving. 

MORONOBU was the first of a long and talented line of book illus- 
trators, amongst whom may be named OKUMURA MASANOBU, TORII 

KlYONOBU, TORII KlYONAGA, TACHIBANA MORIKUNI, NlSHIKAWA SuKE- 

NOBU, TSUKIOKA TANG, and KATSUGAWA SHUNS HO, in the eighteenth 
century ; and ISIIIDA GIOKUZAN, TAKHARA SHUNCHOSAI, Hosoi 
YEISHI, KITAGAWA UTAMARO, KITAWO KEISAI MASAYOSHI, UTAGAWA 
TOYOHIRO, UTAGAWA TOYOKUNI, and KATSUSHIKA HOKUSAI, who 
worked during the opening years of the present cycle. 

By the side of MORONOBU, and of equal influence with him in 
giving the initial impulse to the new school, was a seceder from 
the Kano School named HANABUSA ITCHO. The keenest sense of 
humour, observation, and enjoyment marks his drawings alike of 
traditional and of everyday subjects. His daring unconvention- 
ality procured his expulsion from the Kano Academy, and he was 
further compelled to expiate, by an eighteen years' exile to the 
island of Hachijo, a dangerous liberty which he ventured to take 
with the domestic concerns of the Shogun in publishing the por- 
trait of one of his female favourites amongst a series of drawings 
of popular beauties of the time. 

MORONOBU died between 1711 and 1716, and HANABUSA ITCHO in 
1724: and from their day onward the activity of the popular 
school became enormous in the production, often with inimitable 
skill, of every kind and variety of illustration, for wood-engraving 
coloured and uncoloured. A few of the chief among the many 
artists of the school in the eighteenth century have been men- 
tioned above : and its efforts and powers at last reached their 
climax in the hands of HOKUSAI (1760-1849). Starting from the 
studio of the noted theatrical draughtsman KATSUGAWA ^HUNSHO, 
he worked for the first half of his life at every variety of popular 
art, but without special recognition until the publication of the 
first volume of Mangwa, or .Rough Sketches, in 1812, made him 
famous. The appreciation of men of letters, especially the dis- 
tinguished novelist BAKIN, helping his reputation, he stood by 
common consent for the remainder of his life at the head of 
the school to which he belonged, and his is the only name of a 
Japanese artist at present Avidely known in Europe. Nourished 
direct from the sources of propular life and of nature, his work 
excels alike by the gift of dramatic insight and observation, the 
spirit of humour and the grotesque, a never-failing originality 
and energy of invention and design, and a scarcely ever surpassed 
power of style and hand, whether in subjects of legendary history, of 
popular and artisan life, of landscape, of natural history, or of 
pure decoration. The drawings of HOKUSAI were for the most 
part intended for the wood-engraver, and have been destroyed in the 
cutting : so that in proportion to the prodigious quantity of his 



34 Exhibition of Chinese and Japanese Paintings. 

production, original drawings by his hand, whether in mounted or 
unmounted form, are rare. The same thing is true in a greater 
or less degree of the masters of the Popular School generally. 

76. Yoshitsune and Ladies. 

Painted "by HISHI-GAWA MORO-NOBU : late seventeenth century. 

Kakemono on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 372, no. 1702). 

Minamoto no Yoshitsune is one of the most famous of the 
legendary heroes of Japan ; and his exploits, with those of 
his gigantic adherent Benkei, are among the most frequent 
themes of Japanese romance and painting. He was the 
eighth and youngest son of Yoshitomo, who was killed in 
1160 in the war against the Tairas; and half-brother of 
Yoritomo, the first of the Shoguns and founder of the city 
of Kamakura. In spite of his brilliant services against the 
rival Taira clan, who were at length annihilated at the 
battle of Yashima, he fell under the suspicions of Yoritomo, 
and after many cruel persecutions finally died by his own 
hand in 1189, at the age of thirty. He is here repre- 
sented playing a flute outside a chamber in which a number 
of ladies are also engaged in music. 

77. River Scene : with a Pleasure-barge and Bathers. 

Painted by HISHI-GAWA MORO-NOBU : late seventeenth century. 
Kakemono on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 372, no. 1703). 

78. Holiday Amusements. 

Painted by MIYA-GAWA CHO-SHUN : late seventeenth century. 

Portion of a makimono on paper, in colours (A., Cat. p. 373, no. 1708). 
The public flower exhibitions, and groves or avenues of cherry 
and other trees famous for the beauty of their blossoms, are 
amongst the most popular holiday resorts of the townsfolk of 
the great cities of Japan. Here the visitors, with cheerful 
faces and gaily-coloured apparel, flock in thousands, enjoy- 
ing their holiday with a childish zest almost peculiar to 
their race. In colour and execution, the preeent is a singu- 
larly beautiful example of the decorative art of the popular 
school. 

79. Geisha caressing a Cat. 

Painted by JO-RAN : eighteenth century. 
Kakemono on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 373, no. 1705). 

80. fibisu. 

Painted by HANA-BUSA IT-CHO : eighteenth century. 

Kakemono on paper, the fish in colour, the rest in monochrome (A., Cat. 
p. 375, no. 1721). 

See above, no. 30. The god, holding his attribute, the tai 
fish, above his head, is capering gaily upon the lintel of a 
Shinto gateway. 



Japanese Paintings. Popular School. 35 

81. Procession in honour of the Rice Harvest. 
Painted by HANA-BUSA IT-CHO : eighteenth century. 

Kakemono on silk, in monochrome lightly touched with colour (A., Cat. 
p. 376, no. 1725). 

A number of peasants, some in white Shinto attire, are carry- 
ing a box filled with rice; others in ordinary dress are 
bearing torches and a staff of go-Jiei. Mount Fuji is dimly 
seen through the mists of nightfall. 

82. A Ghost. 

Painted by MAKI CHOKU-SAI : 1862. 

Kakemono on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 386, no. 1764, P. A. J. fig. 50). 

The ghost is shown floating up out of the limits of the 
picture : the usual brocade border being replaced by an 
imitation painted border of flowers (compare below, 
no. 118). 

83. Demons trying the Bow of Tametomo. 

Painted by HOKU-SAI : 1811. 

Kakemono on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 381, no. 174-7, P. A. J. pi. 38). 

Tametomo, the grandson of Yoshiiye, was a famous archer, 
whom tradition describes as of colossal stature and super- 
human strength, and who lived in the latter part of the 
twelfth century. He is said to have visited the Isle of the 
Demons (Onigashima), where the trial here represented 
took place, to the discomfiture of the denizens of the island. 

84. Jiraiya slaying the Giant Serpent. 

Painter unknown : nineteenth century. 

Framed picture (gaku~) on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 400, no. 2035). 

Jiraiya is the hero of a story by Kioden, a famous novelist of 
the beginning of the present century. The story tells how 
the hero was converted from a bandit's life by the benefi- 
cent Toad Spirit, who taught him toad magic, and how to 
use it for the good of the people. Presently he became 
possessed also of the powers of snail magic, by marriage 
with a damsel to whom they had been imparted by the 
Snail Spirit. In the strength of these double powers he 
was able after many adventures to vanquish his rival and 
enemy, the great Serpent Magician. The hero is shown 
standing among his prostrate followers armed with a huge 
matchlock, while the dying serpent emits its final breath, 
which is seen passing in the form of a vapour across the 
moon. On the left appears the friendly Toad Spirit, who 
has been aiding in the fight, and the irregularities of the 
rocks are made to assume the likeness of toads. The style 
of the work resembles and is doubtless derived from that of 
Hokusai. 

D 2 



36 Exhibition of Chinese and Japanese Paintings. 

85. Tora watching the departure of her lover Soga no 
Goro. 

Painted by HIRO-SHIGE : nineteenth century. 
Kakemono on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 383, no. 1756). 

The story of the two Soga brothers, Sukenari or Juro and 
Tokinmne or Goro, and of the penalty they paid for 
avenging their father's death, is one of the most charac- 
teristic tales of Japanese chivalry. Tora was a courtesan of 
Oiso, the mistress of Goro. 

86. 'The Hundred Coolies.' 

Painted by TO-SHIU SHI-REI : nineteenth century. 

Kakemono on silk, in monochrome lightly touched with colour (A., Cat 
p. 385, no. 1760). 

A humorous character sketch of a crowd of coolies, some busy 

and some idle. 

[For other examples of the Popular School, see below, Second 
Series, nos. 178-197]. 

KORIN SCHOOL (nos. 87-91). 

The Korin school owes its name to OGATA KORIN, a famous painter 
and lacquer artist of the latter part of the seventeenth century. 

The source jof KORIN'S early education in painting is a matter of 
doubt. The TOSA school claims him as a pupil of SUMIYOSHI HIRO- 
ZUMI, while, according to another account, he was taught by KANO 
YASUNOBU. A third account maintains that he, his brother KENZAN, 
and an associate named KOHO, had for their master a versatile 
artist named HONNAMI KOYETSU (d. 1637), the grandfather of 
KOHO. The works of KORIN present little similarity either in 
drawing or colouring to those of any of the established schools. 
They display remarkable inventive power, harmonious colouring, 
and usually a vigorous and expressive drawing ; but in his deli- 
neations of the human figure and quadrupeds his conventionality 
leaves even the Tosa school far behind. His men and women have 
scarcely more shape or expression than indifferently-made dolls, 
and his horses and deer are like painted toys. His reputation 
rests chiefly upon his lacquer work, in which his skill was incom- 
parable ; and his influence upon industrial design in general was 
more strongly marked than that of any artist before the time of 
HOKUSAI. He died in 1716, at the age of fifty-six He is not said to 
have had any immediate pupils outside the lacquer industry, and it 
was not until the beginning of the present century that his style 
was revived, or anything deserving the name of a school was formed. 
At this time an admirer of his works named HOITSTJ, a son of the 
Daimio Sakai Uta no Kami, and chief priest of the Nishi Hoiig- 
wanji temple at Kioto, after having studied all the existing schools 
undertook the foundation of a new Korin Academy. He published 
three collections of the designs of KORIN, and himself produced 



Japanese Paintings. Korin School. 37 

many pictures in the same style. He attracted some clever 
pupils to the cause, and succeeded in rescuing from comparative 
oblivion one of the most original and characteristic of the branches 
of Japanese pictorial art. He is said to have died in 1828 at the 
age of sixty-seven. 

HOITSU was as admirable as a painter of birds, as he was extra- 
vagant in his drawings of men and women ; but he had the same 
graceful touch and the same instinct of harmony that reign in the 
works of KORIN, and has deservedly ranked high in the estimation 
of his countrymen. The chief followers of the Korin style, after 
HOITSLT, were OHO, his son; and his pupils KIITSU, KOSON, and 
KOITSU. 

87. The Fording of the Tamagawa River. 

Painted by O-GATA KO-RIN: late seventeenth century. 

Kakemono on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 407, no. 2102). 

The personage on horseback fording the river is the unnamed 
hero (supposed to be Narihira, a poet famous for his beauty) 
of the Xse Monogatari, a Japanese novel of the tenth century. 
The subject is not infrequent in art, and the present example 
is very characteristic of its painter, alike by the empty 
and conventional, drawing of the figures, and by the extra- 
ordinary decorative vigour, delicacy, and originality of the 
colour and design. 

87*. White and Red Poppies. 

Painted by O-GATA KO-RIN : late seventeenth century. 

Kakemono on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 407, no. 2101). 

A floral decoration freely sketched with a full brush in a 
manner quite different from the preceding. 

88. Cock and Chicken. 

Painted by HO-ITSU : nineteenth century. 
Kakemono on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 408, no. 2105). 
One of a pair : the companion piece, also representing a fowl, 
is not exhibited. 

89. Tortoises on the March. 

Painted by TO-NAN : nineteenth century. 

Unmounted drawing on paper, in monochrome (A., Cat. p. 411, no. 2151, 
P. A. J. pi. 60). 

One of a set of twenty-three sketches similarly handled, and 
illustrating, with admirable dexterity of touch and truth of 
suggestion, the life and movements of tortoises. 

90. Bamboos. 

Painted by KI-ITSU : nineteenth century. 

Kakemono on silk, in monochrome (A., Cat. p. 409, no. 2116, P. A. J. pi. 57). 

One of a pair : the companion piece, also representing bamboos. 



38 Exhibition of Chinese and Japanese Paintings. 

is not exhibited. The absence of outline, and method of 
rendering the roundness of the stems, is peculiar to the 
Ko-rin School. 

91. Carp leaping a Waterfall. 

Painted by KI-ITSU : nineteenth century. 
Kakemono on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 408, no. 2112). 
One of a pair : the companion piece, also representing a carp 
and waterfall, is not exhibited. This favourite subject of 
natural history in Japanese art is at the same time an 
emblem of perseverance. 



SHIJO SCHOOL (nos. 92-118). 

This is pre-eminently the naturalist school of Japan. Its founder, 
MARUYAMA OKIO, one of the most famous artists of his country, 
was born in the province of Tamba in 1733. After an academic 
art education of the usual kind, he led a reaction against the tradi- 
tional practice in which he was brought up, and set up truth to 
nature and observation as a standard of excellence, against mere 
calligraphic dexterity and skill in the repetition of conventional 
types. Establishing himself in KIOTO, a great conservative centre, 
he succeeded in effecting something like a revolution in painting, 
and attracted to himself a number of pupils; among whom, or 
among their followers, are included nearly all the best animal and 
natural history painters, and some of the best painters of human 
subjects, in modern Japan. The following are the names of some 
of the chief representative artists of the school : ROSETSU (died 
1799), GENKI (died 1798), GEKKEI or GOSHUN, famous especially for 
landscapes (died 1811), NANGAKU (died 1813), MOPJ SOSEX (died 
1821), the most brilliant animal painter of the school, famous espe- 
cially for his delineations of monkeys, MORI TESSAN (died 1841), 
MORI IPPO, a pupil of TESSAN, distinguished] especially for birds, 
KEIBUN (died 1844), HOYEN, and lastly the great figure painter 
YOSAI, who died at the age of ninety-one in 1878. 

In the latter years of the last and the beginning of the present 
century, the influence of this school re-acted largely and bene- 
ficially on the followers of the Chinese tradition, and indeed on 
the schools of art in general, in Japan. 

92. Carp Swimming. 

Painted by MARU-YAMA O-KIO : 1783. 

Kak&nono on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 420, no. 2252). 

93. Puppies at Play. 

Painted by MARU-YAMA O-KIO : 1783. 

Kakemono on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 420, no. 2255) 



Japanese Paintings. Shijo School. 



94. Cock in a Shower : with a Begonia in Bloom. 
Painted by KAN-TOKU-SAI : 1785. 

Kakemono on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 421, no. 2262, P. A. J. pi. 64). 
Eantokusai was properly speaking a member of the Popular 
school; but this example is painted, with admirable power, 
in Shijo manner, and consequently classified with the works 
of that school. 

95. A Dream of Goblins. 

Painted by MINAMOTO NO SAKI : 1778. 

Portion of a makimono on paper, in colours (A., Cat. p. 439, no. 2366). 

96. Deer and Fawn (Cervus Shika). 

Painted by MORI SO-SEN : early nineteenth century. 

Kakemono on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 425, no. 2285). 
Sosen (1747-1821) was the chief animal painter of modern 

Japan. This and the following are choice examples of his 

highly-finished style of treatment ; nos. 98 and 99 of his 

contrasted rough and sketchy style. 

97. Monkeys on Plum-Tree. 

Painted by MORI SO-SEN : early nineteenth century. 
Kakemono on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 425, no. 2283). 

98. Monkeys on Tree. 

Painted by MORI SO-SEM : late eighteenth century. 
Kakemono on paper, in monochrome (A., Cat. p. 425, no. 2282). 

99. Monkey. 

Painted by MORI SO-SEN. 

Kakemono on paper, in monochrome lightly tinted in colour (A., Cat. p. 424, 
no. 228.0). 

100. Landscape ; rain scene. 

Painted by ISHI-BASHI EI-CHO : nineteenth century. 
Kakemono on silk, in monochrome (A., Cat. p. 226, no. 2294). 

This picture is copied from the work of an earlier master of 
the school, GEKKEI or GOSHUN (1742-1811). 

101. 'The Cherry-Blossoms of Mikawa.' 

Painted by O-TA KIN-KIN : early nineteenth century. 

Kakemono on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 428, no. 2302, P. A. J. pi. 58). 

Ota Kinkin was one of the few female artists of Japan, and 
was especially in repute for her paintings of cherry- 
blossoms. 

102. Troop of Monkeys on Pine-tree. 

Painted by HO-GEN SHIU-HO : nineteenth century. 
Kakemono on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 426, no. 2291). 
After Sosen, Shiuho was one of the most distinguished 
monkey painters of Japan, and this is a favourable example 
of his skill. 



40 Exhibition of Chinese and Japanese Paintings. 



103. Deer grazing beside a Maple-tree ; autumn scene. 

Painted by MORI TES-SAN : early nineteenth century. 
Kakemono on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 427, no. 2300). 

Mori Tessan was a native of Osaka, and pupil of Okio, whose 
manner, however, he adopted with modification ; he died in 
1841. 

104. Tiger among Rocks. 

Painted by KIU-HO TO-YEI : 1803. 

Kakemono on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 438, no. 2358, P. A. J. pi. 66). 
It is not certain whether this artist should properly be classed 
under the Shijo or the Kano school. The tiger is not a 
native of Japan, and though often painted by the artists of 
that countrj 7 , its treatment is usually traditional or imitated 
from the Chinese (see nos. 119, 121, 132). The present 
example has been painted from life, with some licence of 
fancy in details (e.g. the shape of the teeth), and with a 
combined power and minuteness of hand in the rendering 
of the hair and coat that remind us of Albert Diirer. 

105. Pea-fowl and Pine-tree. 

Painted by SAI-KIO-KIO YU-SEI : early nineteenth century. 

Kakemono on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 430, no. 2314, P. A. J. pi. 33). 
Though nothing is known of this painter, yet his work here 
exhibited is alike by truth to nature, by vital power and 
expressiveness of touch and drawing, and by imaginative 
suggestion of colour, one of the most striking in the whole 
collection. 

106. Cuckoo flying in a Shower. 

Painted by KWAN-SETSU : late eighteenth century. 

Kakemono on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 430, no. 2313). 

A subject much affected by artists of this school (see nos. 
107, 108, 109) is the flight of birds ' in the rainlight,' the 
effect of rain in sky and landscape being merely suggested 
in a light wash of ink, while the forms and actions of the 
birds themselves are rendered with full vigour of touch, and 
sometimes, as in the present instance, with considerable 
finish of detail. 

107. Titmice flying in a Shower. 

Painted by KEI-BUN: late eighteenth century. 

Kakemono on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 422, no. 2265, P. A. J. fig. 119). 
The bird represented is the Chinese titmouse (Par us minor'). 

One of a pair : for the companion piece see next number. 

108. Cuckoo flying near a Waterfall. 
Painted by KEI-BUN : late eighteenth century. 

Kakemono on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 422, no. 2266). 

Companion piece to no. 107. 



Japanese Paintings. Shijo School. 41 

109. Mallards flying by Moonlight. 
Painted by KEI-BUN : late eighteenth century, 

Kakemono on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 422, no. 2268). 
The birds represented are a male and female mallard (Anas 
boschas). 

110. Hadesu killing the Korean Tiger. 

Painted by YO-SAI : nineteenth century. 

Kakemono on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 435, no. 2345, P. A. /., pi. 34). 
Kikuchi Yosai, named also Takeyasu, was one of the most 
gifted artists of his age, and died at ninety-one in 1878. 
Unlike most painters of his school, he devoted himself 
chiefly to figure subjects, and his chief work was the series 
of portraits of Japanese celebrities designed and engraved 
for the book called Zenken Kojitsu. The story of Hadesu 
is as follows : Kashiwa-deno Omi Hadesu was sent, accom- 
panied by his family, as ambassador from the Emperor 
Kimmei to Korea, in A.D. 545. One snowy night during his 
stay in that country his little daughter was lost. Search 
was vain, until at last a bloody track marked by the foot- 
prints of a tiger gave a clue to the mystery, and the father 
determined to follow the beast to its lair- The tiger was 
on the alert, and came towards him with open mouth, but 
Hadesu, thrusting his hand between its jaws, seized the 
creature's tongue and plunged a sword into its body. 

111. The Grasshopper Procession. 

Painted by HO-YEN : early nineteenth century. 
Kakemono on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 422, no. 2264). 
The feudal procession of a Daimio burlesqued by insects ; com- 
pare above, no. 44. Hoyen was one of the most graceful 
and influential painters of animal and vegetable life of his 
school and century. For other drawings by him and by his 
scholars see below, Second Series, nos. 205-222. 

112. Pea-fowl and Peonies. 

Painted by KO-SEI : nineteenth century. 

Kakemono on silk, in monochrome, touched with gold (A., Cat. p. 431, no. 
2318). 

113. A Roadside Robbery in Winter. 

Painter unknown : nineteenth century. 
Kakemono on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 436, no. 2351). 

114. 115. Landscapes, a pair : Spring and Autumn. 

Painted by MORI Ip-ro : nineteenth century. 
Kakemonos on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 423, nos. 2272, 227 2 A). 

116. Cranes Flying. 

Painted by MORI IP-PO : nineteenth century. 

Kakemono on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 423, no. 2275, P. A. J. pi. 62). 

A masterpiece of the artist and the school. 



42 Exhibition of Chinese and Japanese Paintings. 

117. Peacock on Pine-bough. 

Painted by MOKI IP-PO : nineteenth century. 
Kakemono on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 423, no. 2273). 

118. Chung Kwei and the Demons. 

Painted by SHIBA-TA ZE-SHIN : nineteenth century. 
Kakemono on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 437, no. 2355, P. A. J. pi. 45). 

The demons are represented as kicked down by the hero out 
of the limits of the picture : the usual brocade border being 
replaced by an imitation painted border (compare above, 
no. 82). Chung Kwei (Jap. Shdki), the Demon-queller, is 
a popular personage of Chinese, and by adoption of Japanese, 
mythology. In the reign of the Emperor Kao Tsu (Jap. 
Koso), 618-627 A.D., having failed to attain the position to 
which he aspired in the State examination, he killed him- 
self for shame, but at his burial was raised by imperial 
command to posthumous honours in requital for which 
favour his spirit undertook the office of a kind of ghostly 
protector to a subsequent Emperor, Ming Hwang (Jap. 
Genso, A.D. 713-762), when his palace was haunted by 
demons. 
[For other examples of the Shijo School, see below, Second 

Series, nos. 198-273.] 

GANKU SCHOOL (nos. 119-133). 

This is the youngest of the recognised art schools or academies 
of Japan. Its founder, KISHI DOKO, better known by his nom dc 
pinceau of GANKU, was born in Kanazawa, in the province of Kaga, 
about the middle of the last century. He was at first a retainer 
of Prince Arisugawa, subsequently entering the service of the 
Emperor, and appears to have originally adopted painting as an 
amusement; but in his later years the pursuit became a profession, 
and gave him a high position amongst the art teachers of Kioto. 
His style was based upon the pictures of the old Chinese masters 
of the Sung Dynasty, but by importations from various other 
sources underwent sufficient modification to give to his work a 
distinctive character, which can also be recognized in that of his 
pupils. He was especially noted for his drawings of tigers, in. 
which he was a close imitator of the Sung artists, but his delinea- 
tions of birds indicate that the fame of OKIO'S teaching had not 
been without an effect upon his theories. The naturalistic element 
was, however, far less apparent in his works than in those of some 
of his pupils, who approached so closely to the Shijo practice that 
the separation of the paintings of the two academies is often 
a task of some difliculty. He died in 1838, at the age of 89. 

Among his principal followers were his eldest son GANTAI 
(died 1863), his nephew GAXRIO, especially noted for drawings of 
flowers and insects, his son-in-law KENZAN or GANTOKU (died 1859), 
whose manner closely approaches that of the Shijo School; with 



Japanese Paintings. GanJcu School. 43 

BUMPO, TEMMIN, CHIKUDO, and lastly BUNRIN, (died 1877), one of 
the most refined and original of the modern landscape-painters of 
Japan. 

119. Tiger at Rest. 

Painted by GAN-KU : early nineteenth century. 

Kakemono on silk, in monochrome lightly touched with colour (A., Cat. 
p. 452, no. 2702). 

120. Monkeys. 

Painted by GAN-KU and GAN-TAI : early nineteenth century. 

Kakemono on silk, in ink, slightly touched with colour (A., Cat. p. 452, no, 
2707). 

121. Tiger and Bamboos, in Rain. 

Painted by GAN-TAI : nineteenth century. 

Kakemono on silk, in monochrome (A., Cat. p. 454, no. 2710, P. A. J. pL 
67). 

122. Spring View of Mount Fuji. 

Painted by GAN-TAI : nineteenth century. 

Kakemono on silk, lightly tinted in colours (A., Cat. p. 454, no. 2711). 

123. 124. Chinese Landscapes, with Figures : a Pair. 

Painted by GAN-TOKU (BEN-ZAN) : nineteenth century. 
Kakemonos on silk, lightly tinted in colours (A., Cat. p. 454, nos. 2713, 2712), 

125. View of Lake Biwa by Moonlight. 

Painted by BUN-RIN : nineteenth century. 

Framed drawing on silk, in monochrome (A., Cat. p. 451, no. 2728, P. A. J. 
pi. 55). 

126. Morning Mists on the Yodo River. 

Painted by BUN-KIN : nineteenth century. 

Unmounted drawing on silk, lightly tinted in colours (A., Cat. p. 456, no. 
2726, P. A. J. pi. 51). 

One of a pair : see next number. 

127. Moonlight Scene near Kioto. 

Painted by BUN-RIN : nineteenth century. 
Kakemono on silk, lightly tinted in colours (A., Cat. p. 455, no. 2727). 
Companion piece to the above. 

128. Sparrow and Peony. 

Painted by BUN RIN : nineteenth century. 

Kakemono on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 454, no. 2721). 

129. Sparrows flying in a Shower. 

Painted by CHIKU-DO : nineteenth century. 
Kakemono on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 455, no. 2718). 
Painted in the style of the Shijo school : the bird represented 
in this and the above examples is again the Tree Sparrow 
(Passer montanus}. 



Exhibition of Chinese and Japanese Paintings. 



130. Monkeys and Grass. 

Painted by CHIKU-DO : nineteenth century. 

Kakemono on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 455, no. 2719). 

131. Peasant and Wife resting under a Gourd. 

Painted by KWA-ZAN : nineteenth century. 
Kakemono on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 437, no. 2724). 

MIXED SCHOOL (nos. 132-133). 

132. Tiger on the Spring. 

Painted by I-KO : early nineteenth century. 
Kakemono on silk, in monochrome (A., Cat. p. 208, no. 649). 

One of a pair : the companion piece, representing a dragon, is 
not exhibited. 

133. The Thousand Carp. 

Painted by I-KO : early nineteenth century. 

Kakemono on silk, in monochrome and gold (A., Cat. p. 240, no. 818, P. A. J. 
pi. 59). 

The spectator is supposed to "be looking into the water, as 
through the glass front of an aquarium, at an approaching 
shoal of carp. The painting in many respects contradicts 
the ordinary practice of Sinico- Japanese Art, in comprising 
a careful observance of the laws of apparent size in ratio to 
distance, and an almost scientific conception of high lights 
and shadow gradations. The style of colouring is that of 
the Chinese school, but the design is more suggestive of 
Shijo teaching. The use of gold to render the effect of high 
lights is worthy of remark. 

Very little is known of the painter of these last two kake- 
monos, who is reputed to have been an amateur practising 
about the end of the last and the beginning of the present 
century, and who evidently adopted eclectic principles of 
design. 



Japanese Paintings. Yamato-Tosa School. 45 



SECOND SERIES. 



The draivings exhibited in this series are placed in the shoiv-cases on 
the floor of the Room. The numbers begin at the north-east 
corner farthest from the entrance^ and proceed from left to right, 
ending with the case nearest to the Ceramic Gallery (see Plan). 



YAMATO-TOSA SCHOOL (nos. 134-157). 

[For other examples of this School, see above, First Series, nos. 

20-33.] 

The following set of Drawings, arranged in the first two- 
show-cases (beginning as above mentioned), illustrate one of the 
most familiar of Japanese tales, that of the destruction of the 
Shin ten Doji, a ravening ogre or demon, by the hero Minamoto 
no Yorimitsu, better known as Eaiko. The date given to this 
exploit in chronological works is A.D. 947. The tenor of the story, 
which is closely analogous to that of similar tales in the West, will 
be clear from the episodes here illustrated. The explanation of 
the several scenes is as follows : 

134. Story of Raiko and the Shiuten Doji. 

Painter unknown : seventeenth century. 

Eaiko receives the Imperial commission to exterminate the 
ogre and his demons. 

135. Story of Raiko and the Shiuten Doji. 

Painter unknown : seventeenth century. 

Preparations for departure. Council of Eaiko with his six 
squires. The inferior retainers are sharpening the swords,, 
preparing food for the journey, and feeding the horses. 

136. Story of Raiko and the Shiuten Doji. 

Painter unknown : seventeenth century. 

The departure. The band have adopted the disguise of 
peripatetic Buddhist priests, and are utilising as receptacles 
for their armour the portable wooden cases which the priests 
are accustomed to carry on their backs. 

137. Story of Raiko and the Shiuten Doji. 

Painter unknown : seventeenth century. 

Journey through the mountains. The hero and his band 



46 Exhibition of Chinese and Japanese Paintings. 

encounter a friendly spirit, the spirit of Sumiyoshi, who 
appears in the form of a venerable old man. 

138. Story of Raiko and the Shiuten Doji. 

Painter unknown : seventeenth century. 

The friendly Spirit entertains the party, and is served with 
marks of profound respect by Raiko himself. He presents 
Eaiko with a close-fitting helmet to wear beneath his own, 
and a poisonous drug to be used for the purpose of stupefy- 
ing the monster. 

139. Story of Raiko and the Shiuten Doji. 

Painter unknown : seventeenth century. 

Eaiko and his band, under the guidance of the friendly Spirit, 
continue their journey and are seen crossing a tree bridge. 

140. Story of Raiko and the Shiuten D5ji. 

Painter unknown : seventeenth century. 

Eaiko and his band arrive under the guidance of the Spirit at 
the borders of a mountain lake. 

141. Story of Raiko and the Shiuten Doji. 

Painter unknown : seventeenth century. 

Eaiko and his band discover a weeping lady washing a bloody 
garment in a stream. She directs the travellers to the 
home of the monster. 

142. Story of Raiko and the Shiuten Doji. 

Painter unknown : seventeenth centuiy. 

Eaiko and his band arrive at the gates of the ogre's castle, 
and receive an ironical welcome from his demon guards. 

143. Story of Raiko and the Shiuten Doji. 

Painter unknown : seventeenth century. 

Eaiko and his band are entertained by the ogre, who receives 
them in one of the various forms he has the power to as- 
sume : viz., that of a huge and bloated boy in Chinese garb. 
The newly-severed leg of a woman is set before the guests. 
Eaiko eats with seeming relish while his comrades look on 
with stolid countenances. 

144. Story of Raik5 and the Shiuten Doji. 

Painter unknown : seventeenth century. 

The adventurers prepare sake for their host, who is now 
attended by two richly-dressed ladies. It is shown how 
the liquor is being secretly tempered with the drug received 
from the Spirit of Sumiyoshi. 



Japanese Paintings. Yamato-Tosa School. 47 



145. Story of Raiko and the Shiuten Doji. 

Painter unknown : seventeenth century. 

The Orgie. The Shiuten Doji is succumbing to the influence 
of the drink. A demon performs a comic dance which is 
greatly applauded by his comrades and the heroes. 

146. Story of Raiko and the Shiuten Doji. 

Painter unknown : seventeenth century. 

The Ogre has been carried off to his sleeping quarters over- 
come with drink. His demon guards are seen succumbing 
to the same influence, as the heroes continue to ply them 
with the drugged liquor. 

147. Story of Raiko and the Shiuten Doji. 

Painter unknown : seventeenth century. 

The heroes take counsel with the captive ladies. 

148. Story of Raiko and the Shiuten Doji. 

Painter unknown : seventeenth century. 

The heroes arm for the attack. 

149. Story of Raiko and the Shiuten Doji. 

Painter unknown ; seventeenth century. 

The heroes are secretly conducted by the captive ladies towards 
the sleeping apartments of the Ogre. 

150. Story of Raiko and the Shiuten Doji. 

Painter unknown : seventeenth century. 

The Ogre's chamber. To the right appear the heroes outside , 
about to push open the sliding doors, while the friendly 
Spirit hands them a coil of magic rope. To the left is the 
interior of the room, where the Shiuten Doji, resuming his 
true form in sleep, is seen as a hideous flame-coloured demon 
lying in a state of drunken stupor. A number of fair cap- 
tives soothe him to sleep by stroking his limbs. Some of 
the ladies make signs that their deliverers are at hand. 

151. Story of Raiko and the Shiuten Doji. 

Painter unknown : seventeenth century. 

The attack. The giant, having been bound during his sleep 
to the pillars of the apartment, has been decapitated by a 
stroke of Eaiko's sabre. The writhing trunk and members 
have snapped all the bonds save one presumably that 
brought by the Spirit of Sumiyoshi while the severed head, 
after springing high into the air, has darted down on Raiko 
like a beast of prey, seizing his helmet with its fangs. 
Eaiko falls on one knee, but is saved by the under cap of 
steel, the gift of the friendly Spirit. In the meantime the 



48 Exhibition of Chinese and Japanese Paintings. 

knights hack at the struggling frame on the floor, while 
the ladies fly in terror from the scene. 

152. Story of Raiko and the Shiuten Doji. 

Painter unknown : seventeenth century. 

The charnel house. The knights, under the guidance of three 
of the ladies, have reached the den which is the Ogre's 
shambles and larder. 

153. Story of Raiko and the Shiuten Doji. 

Painter unknown : seventeenth century. 

The heroes capture two of the demon guardians of the 
shambles. 

154. Story of Raiko and the Shiuten Doji. 

Painter unknown : seventeenth century. 

The heroes execute the captured guards. 

155. Story of Raiko and the Shiuten Doji. 

Painter unknown : seventeenth century. 

The heroes return through the mountain passes in company 
with the rescued ladies. 

156. 157. Story of Raiko and the Shiuten Doji. 

Painter unknown : seventeenth century. 

Raiko and his band return in triumph, accompanied by the 
spoils of their expedition, between files of high-born spec- 
tators, to the presence of the Mikado, which is indicated by 
the wheels of his sacred ox-chariot. 

The above nos., 134-157, are selected from a set of thirty-four unmounted 
drawings on paper, in colours, intended for mounting as a makimouo, by 
an unknown painter of the Yamato-Tosa school in the seventeenth century 
(A., Cat. pp. 146-150, nos. 383-416). 

The special characteristics of the workmanship, such as the 
precise and minute drawing of features and extremities, 
in a manner not much unlike that of Persian miniature- 
painting, the extreme care in all points of accessory, 
costume, and furniture, the conventional cast of countenance 
and attitude in the women, the use of a uniform pattern of 
highly-conventionalized cloud, the vivid and rather harsh 
colouring, especially in the greens, with the dramatic and 
effective manner of setting forth the story, are all eminently 
characteristic of the later work of the school. 

CHINESE SCHOOL (nos. 158-168). 

[For other examples of this school, see above, First Series, 
nos. 34-58.] 

158. Sparrows and Hibiscus. 
Painter unknown : 1657. 



Japanese Paintings. Chinese and Kano Schools. 49 

159. Painted Snipe (Ehynchea capensis) and St. John's Wort. 

Painter unknown : 1657. 

160. Cormorant (Plialacrocorax capillatus) on Rock. 

Painter unknown : 1657. 

161. Kingfisher (Alcedo lengalensis) and Bittern. 

Painter unknown : 1657. 

162. Duck and Iris. 

Painter unknown : 1657. 

163. Cuckoo and flowering Shrub. 

Painter unknown : 1657. 

164. Bird and Lily. 

Painter unknown : 1657. 

165. Flycatcher (Muscicapa narcissina) and Hibiscus. 

166. Golden Pheasant (Phasianus pidus) and St. John's 
Wort. 

Painter unknown : 1657. 

The above nos., 158-165, are selected from a set of thirty-eight coloured 
sketches on paper by an unknown Japanese artist of the Chinese school, 
dating in the third year of Meirekei, = 1657 (A., Cat. p. 261, nos. 1089- 
1126). 

167. Wagtail (Motacilla japonica) and Dead Leaves. 

Painted by SA-TAK& YEI-KAI: nineteenth century. 

Fan-mount on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 252, no. 951). 

168. Rats stealing Eggs. 

Painted by SA-TAKE YEI-KAI : nineteenth century. 

Fan-mount on silk, monochrome, lightly touched with colour (A., Cat. p. 
252, no. 952, P. A.J. fig. 53). 

KANO SCHOOL (nos. 169-177). 

[For other examples of this school, see above, First Series, 
nos. 62-71.] 

169. Design for a Saddle : Birds and Water. 

Painted by KA-NO YU-HO : eighteenth century. 

170. Design for a Saddle: Shells and Seaweed. 

Painted by KA-NO YU-HO : eighteenth century. 

171. Design for a Saddle: Wild Geese and Rushes. 

Painted by KA-NO YU-HO : eighteenth century. 

172. Design for a Saddle : Leaves, Ferns, and Cord. 

Painted by KA-NO YU-HO : eighteenth century. 

173. Design for a Saddle: Chrysanthemums. 

Painted by KA-NO YU-HO : eighteenth century. 



50 Exhibition of Chinese and Japanese Paintings. 

174. Design for a Saddle : a flowering Tree. 

Painted by KA-NO YU-HO : eighteenth century. 

175. Design for a Saddle : a Rice-field. 

Painted by KA-NO YU-HO : eighteenth century. 

176. Design for a Saddle: Butterflies. 

Painted by KA-NO YU-HO : eighteenth century. 

177. Design for a Saddle : Millet. 

The above nos., 169-177, are selected from a set of twenty-five designs for 
lacquered saddle-fronts, on paper, in colours (A., Cat. p. 317, nos. 
1480-1504). 

POPULAR SCHOOL (nos. 178-197). 

[For other examples of this school, see above, First Series, 
nos. 76-84.] 

178. Bird and Convolvulus. 

Painted by HOKU-SAI : nineteenth century. 
Drawing on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 398, no. 1899). 



179. Kusunoki Masashige and his Son. 

Painted by HOKU-SAI : nineteenth century. 

Kusunoki Masashige is one of the most famous examples of 
courage and loyalty in Japanese history. In 1331 he was 
designated by the Emperor to defend the cause of the 
throne against the rebel Takatoki. A few years later, in 
1336, he was pitted against a more formidable foe in 
Ashikaga Takauji. Again he won a victory for the Im- 
perial forces, and suggested a scheme for wholly crushing 
the Ashikagas, but his advice being rejected, he precipitated 
himself into an unequal conflict against a large army under 
Takauji. Nearly all his retainers died fighting around him, 
and at last, the day lost, he retired with his brother, the 
survivors of his staff, and sixty followers, to a farmer's 
house in Minatogawa, where the whole number committed 
suicide. Before ending his life, the hero called his eldest 
son before him and gave him (in the manner here depicted) 
the ancestral roll as a precious heirloom to stimulate him 
to deeds of heroism. 

180. Racoon-faced Dog in disguise. 

Painted by HOKU-SAI : nineteenth century. 

The racoon-faced dog (Tanuki) is in Japan the subject of as 
many legends, and credited with as great powers of trans- 
formation and mischief, as the fox. He is here represented 
dressed as a priest, and examining a trap baited with a 
dead rat. 



Japanese Paintings. Popular School. 



181. Rats and capsicum Pods. 

Painted by HOKU-SAI : nineteenth century. 

182. Cray-fish, Orange, Fern-frond, &c. 

Painted by HOKU-SAI : nineteenth century. 

A New Year's symbolical decoration. 

183. Frog swimming. 

Painted by HOKU-SAI : nineteenth century. 

The above five numbers, 179-183, form a series of drawings on silk, in colours. 
(A., Cat. p. 379, nos. 1772-1776). 



184. Snakes, Newts, Frogs, Locusts, Bees, &c. 

Painted by TO-TEI HOKU-SHI : nineteenth century. 

185. Ladies with a Birdcage : and other Figures. 

Painted by TO-TEI HOKU-SHI : nineteenth century. 

186. Scene from a Novel. 

Painted by TO-TEI HOKU-SHI : nineteenth century. 

The above three numbers are drawings on paper, 184 in colours, 185 and 
186 in monochrome, selected from a set of thirty sheets of miscellaneous 
sketches by the same artist (A., Cat. p. 390, nos. 1779-1816). 

TOTEI HOKUSHI was a pupil and imitator of HOKUSAI, and his 
close relation to his master is especially to be discerned in 
the sheet of natural history studies, no. 184. 



187. Japanese Landscape. 

Painted by HIRO-SHIG : nineteenth century. 
Drawing on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 397, no. 1895). 

One of a pair ; the companion piece is not exhibited. 

188. Carp. 

Painted by UTA-GAWA TOKO-YUNI the Second : nineteenth 

century. 
Drawing on silk, in monochrome (A., Cat. p. 394, no. 1826). 

In the style of the Shijo School ; compare First Series, no. 92. 



189. Turning the Tables : Snake triumphed over by Frogs. 

Painted by KIO-SAI : 1879. 

190. Turning the Tables : Snake crucified by Frogs. 

Painted by KIO-SAI : 1879. 



52 Exhibition of Chinese and Japanese Paintings. 

191. Tortoises and other animals : an Execution Scene. 

Painted by KIO-SAI : 1879. 

Two tortoises are already hanged by the neck, while a third, 
suspended by the tail, serves as a target to the arrows of a 
troop of monkeys, frogs, and brother tortoises ; below on the 
right the mythical Kappa is seen gesticulating. 

192. Turning the Tables : a Cat captured and tormented 
by Rats. 

Painted by KIO-SAI : 1879. 

193. Turning the Tables: a Man dragged in bonds by 
Wolves, Hares, &c. 

Painted by KIO-SAI : 1879. 

194. Men chased by Wolves. 

Painted by KIO-SAI : 1879. 

The above six numbers, 189-194, are selected from a set of forty-five 
burlesque drawings on paper, in colours (A., Cat. p. 395, nos. 1847-1891). 



195. A Sinner after Death brought before Yama, King of 
Hell. 

Painted by KIO-SAI : 1879. 

196. Yama, King of Hell, presiding at the punishment of 
Sinners. 

Painted by KIO-SAI : 1879. 

197. The Punishment of Sinners. 

Painted by KIO-SAI : 1879. 

The above three numbers, 195-197, are selected from a set of five burlesque 
drawings on paper, in colours (A., Cat. p. 394, nos. 1827-1831). 



The painter of the two series from which the above examples 
are taken, Kawanabe Kiosai, was born in 1831, and is still 
living. He is one of the most vigorous pupils of the school 
of Hoku-sai, and in the burlesque vein especially, an artist 
of great originality and fertility ; though the evidences of 
carelessness often mar the quality of his work. 

SHIJO SCHOOL (nos. 198-273). 

[For other examples of this school, see above, First Series, 
nos. 92-118.] 

198. The Seven Calamities^ the Great Serpent. 

Painted by MINAMOTO NO O-KO, after O-KIO : 1773. 

199. The Seven Calamities i the Great Bird. 

Painted by MINAMOTO NO O-KO, after O-KIO : 1773. 



Japanese Paintings. Shijo School. 53 

200. The Seven Calamitiesj Lightning. 
Painted by MINAMOTO NO O-KO, after O-KIO: 1773. 

201. The Seven Calamities^ Earthquake. 

Painted by MINAMOTO NO O-KO, after O-KIO : 1773. 

202. The Seven Calamities^ Hurricane. 

Painted by MINAMOTO NO OKO, after O-KIO : 1773. 

203. The Seven Calamitiesj Inundation. 

Painted by MINAMOTO NO O-KO, after O-KIO : 1773. 

204. The Seven Calamities: Gateway of the Mikado's 
Palace. 

Painted by MINAMOTO NO O-KO, after O-KIO : 1773. 

It is not easy to understand the connection of this peaceful 
scene which closes the Series of the Seven Calamities, with 
the scenes of horror which precede it. It may perhaps be 
introduced only by way of contrast. 

The above seven numbers, 198-204, constitute a complete series of drawings 
on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 444, nos. 2631-2637). 



205. Plum-branch. 

Painted by HO-YEN : nineteenth century. 

[For another work of this master, see above, First Series, no. 111.] 

206. Sparrow on Plum-branch. 

Painted by NAN-REI : nineteenth century. 

207. Melon. 

Painted by KIO-HO : nineteenth century. 

208. St. John's Wort. 

Painted by NAN-REI : nineteenth century. 

209. Blue-backed Flycatcher (Muscicapa cyanomelana) and 
Hibiscus. 

Painted by KO-YO : nineteenth century. 

210. Water-Lily. 

Painted by KAN-YEI : nineteenth century. 

211. Dead Fish and Bamboo. 

Painted by SHI-ZAN : nineteenth century. 

212. Tortoise and Water-plant. 

Painted by EIO-SETSU : nineteenth century. 

213. Carp swimming. 

Painted by KIN-REI : nineteenth century. 

214. Lychnis in Flower. 

Painted by GIOKU-AN : nineteenth century. 



54 Exhibition of Chinese and Japanese Paintings. 

215. White-flowering Pomegranate. 

Painted by GO-SEN : nineteenth century. 

216. Cicada and Pine-bough. 

Painted by SHUN-KO : nineteenth century. 

217. Boys Fishing. 

Painted by KO-YO : nineteenth century. 

[For other paintings by this master, see below, nos. 243-259.] 

218. Scroll Genius. 

Painted by KO-SAN : nineteenth century. 

219. A Samurai in Armour. 

Painted by SHO-GAKU : nineteenth century. 

220. Fisherman with Net. 

Painted by BAI-SHO : nineteenth century. 

221. Chinese Boys with a Book. 

Painted by GO-SEN : nineteenth century. 

222. Liu Pei plunging into the Stream. 

Painted by KISU-I : nineteenth century. 

Liu Pei (Jap. Riubi or Gentoku) historically known as Chao 
Lieh Ti, was a famous soldier of fortune of the 3rd century 
A.D., who rose from the position of a vendor of straw shoes 
to the throne of one of the three kingdoms into which China 
was divided after the fall of the Han Dynasty. He died 
A.D. 222, shortly after his accession to sovereign power. 
The story relating to the incident here depicted has not yet 
been traced. 

The above eighteen numbers, 205-222, belong to a series of nineteen draw- 
ings on silk, in colours, by HOYEN and various of his scholars (A., Cat. 
p. 440, nos. 2377-2395). 



223. Japanese Spotted Kingfisher (Coryle lugubris). 

Painted by NO-DA TO-MIN : early nineteenth century. 

224. Domestic Hen. 

Painted by NO-DA TO-MIN : early nineteenth century. 

225. Garganey (Anas circea). 

Painted by NO-DA TO-MIN : early nineteenth century. 

226. Little Grebes (Podiceps minor). 

Painted by NO-DA TO-MIN : early nineteenth century. 

227. Mandarin Duck and Drake (Anas galericulata). 

Painted by NO-DA TO-MIN : early nineteenth century. 

228. Mandarin Duck and Drake (Anas galericulata). 
Painted by NO-DA TO-MIN : early nineteenth century. 



Japanese Paintings. Shijo School. 55 

229. Teal (Anas creccd). 

Painted by NO-DA TO-MIN : early nineteenth century. 

230. Female Teal, female Shoveller (Anas clypeata), and 
Moorhen (Gallinula chloropus). 

Painted by NO-DA TO-MIN : early nineteenth century. 

231. Woodcock (Scolopax rusticola). 

Painted by NO-DA TO-MIN : early nineteenth century. 

232. Siberian Water-Rails (Ballus indicus). 

Painted by NO-DA TO-MIN : early nineteenth century. 

233. Red-eared Bulbul (Hypsipetes amaurotis). Dove, and 
Young Starling. 

Painted by NO-DA TO-MIN : early nineteenth century, 

234. Dove and Cuckoo. 

Painted by NO-DA TO-MIN : early nineteenth century. 

235. White's Thrush (Geocichla varia), Rock Thrush (Monti- 

cola saxatilis) and Tree Sparrow (Passer montanus). 
Painted by NO-DA TO-MIN : early nineteenth century. 

236. Japanese Jay (Garrulus japonicus). 

Painted by NO-DA TO-MIN : early nineteenth century. 

237. Silver Pheasant (Euplocamus nycthemerus). 
Painted by NO-DA TO-MIN : early nineteenth century. 

238. Domestic Cock. 

Painted by NO-DA TO-MIN : early nineteenth century. 

239. Widgeon (?), with a Mandarin Drake and Duck 
lightly sketched. 

Painted by NO-DA TO-MIN : early nineteenth century. 

240. Pormosan Heron (Butorides macrorhynchus). 
Painted by No -DA TO-MIN : early nineteenth century. 

241. Heron and Pochard (?). 

Painted by NO-DA TO-MIN : early nineteenth century. 

242. White Ducks (? Dusky Mallard, Anas zonorhyncha). 

Painted by NO-DA TO-MIN : early nineteenth century. 
The above nineteen numbers, 228-242, are selected from a series of forty-six 
sketches on paper, in colours, by the same artist (A., Cat. p. 444, nos. 



243. Rice-bird (Padda oryzivora) on Plum-branch. 
Painted by KO-YO : nineteenth century. 

244. Goldcrests (Eegulus cristatus japonicus) and Maple- 
branch. 

Painted by KO-YO : nineteenth century. 



56 Exhibition of Chinese and Japanese Paintings. 

245. Wren (Troglodytes parvus fumigatus) and Narcissus. 

Painted by KO-YO : nineteenth century. 

246. ? Japanese Knot (Tringa crassirostris) and Iris. 
Painted by KO-YO : nineteenth century. 

247. Cuckoo, Nut-branch, and Crescent Moon. 
Painted by KO-YO : nineteenth century. 

248. Japanese Titmouse (Parus varius) and Convolvulus. 

Painted by KO-YO : nineteenth century. 

249. Sparrow (Passer montanus) and Desmodeum. 
Painted by KO-YO : nineteenth century. 

250. Chinese Great Titmouse (Parus minor) and Chry- 
santhemum. 

Painted by KO-YO : nineteenth century. 

251. Chinese Golden-wing (Fringilla sinica) on wild Cherry- 
bough. 

Painted by KO-YO : nineteenth century. 

252 ? American Pipit (Anfhus ludovidanus) and Valerian. 
Painted by KO-YO : nineteenth century. 

253. Indian Kingfisher (Alcedo ispida lengalensis) and Water- 
plant. 

Painted by KO-YO : nineteenth century. 

254. Red-billed Magpie (Urocissa sinensis) on Pomegranate- 
branch. 

Painted by KO-YO : nineteenth century. 

255. Eastern Turtle-Dove (Turtur gelastes) and Commelina. 

Painted by KO-YO : nineteenth century. 

256. Mallards. 

Painted by KO-YO : nineteenth century. 

257. Bull-headed Shrike (Lanius lucephalus) on Nut-bough. 

Painted by KO-YO : nineteenth century. 

258. Masked Bunting (Emberiza personata) on Magnolia- 
bough. 

Painted by KO-YO : nineteenth century. 

259. Japanese Green Woodpecker (Gesinus awokera) on 
Pine-tree. 

Painted by KO-YO : nineteenth century. 

The above seventeen numbers, 243-259, are selected from a series of twenty- 
one sketches on paper, in colours, by the same artist (A., Cat, p. 441, nos. 
2396-2416). 



Japanese Paintings. Shijo School. 57 



260. Mallards flying in Snow. 

Painted by SHO-SHO-TO KAGE-MURA : nineteenth century. 

261. Grasshoppers on flowering Shrub : Moonlight. 

Painted by SHO-SHO-TO KAGE-MURA : nineteenth century. 

262. Sparrows and Mulberry : a Shower. 

Painted by SHO-SHO-TO KAGE-MURA : nineteenth century. 

263. Fire-flies, Grasses, and Convolvulus. 

Painted by SHO-SHO-TO KAGE-MURA : nineteenth centuiy. 

264. White-naped Cranes (Grus leuchauchen). 

Painted by SHO-SHO-TO KAGE-MURA : nineteenth century. 

The above five numbers, 260-264, form a series of delicately executed draw- 
ings on silk, in colours (A., Cat. p. 441, nos. 2417-2421). 



265. Quail (Coturnix communis). 

Painter unknown : nineteenth century. 

266. Buntings (Emberiza rustica). 

Painter unknown : nineteenth century. 

267. Quail (Coturnix communis). 

Painter unknown : nineteenth century. 

268. Japanese Titmouse (Parus varius). 
Painter unknown : nineteenth century. 

269. Dove. 

Painter unknown : nineteenth century. 

270. Flycatcher. 

Painter unknown : nineteenth century. 

271. Tree Sparrow (Passer montanus). 

Painter unknown : nineteenth century. 

272. Silk Starling (Sturnus serious). 
Painter unknown : nineteenth century. 

273. Japanese Titmouse (Parus varius). 

Painter unknown : nineteenth century. 

The above nine numbers, 265-273, are selected from a set of thirty carefully 
finished drawings on paper, in colours, by the same unknown artist (A., 
Gat. p. 444, nos. 2493-2522). 



THE END. 



LONDON: 
PRINTED BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, LIMITED, 

STAMFORD STREET AND CHARING CROSS. 




ND British Museum. Dept. of 

1036 Prints and Drawings 

B75 Guide to the exhibition 



PLEASE DO NOT REMOVE 
CARDS OR SLIPS FROM THIS POCKET 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY